Reducing Justice Involvement For People with Mental Illness.

DOCUMENTS BY INTERCEPT


Note: Some documents are listed more than once if applicable to more than one intercept point

General

2014 Pennsylvania Autism Census Update
  • The 2014 Pennsylvania Autism Census Update found that over 55,000 Pennsylvanians with autism are receiving services
  • The PA Autism Census is among the first efforts in the US to use statewide data from multiple sources to map where people with autism live and receive services. Please visit www.paautism.org/census for a clickable map by county
  • If you have any questions, please contact the ASERT Collaborative Eastern Region (ASERT@drexel.edu).
Addressing Histories of Trauma and Victimization through Treatment
  • Treatment of trauma-related disorders for both men and women in criminal justice settings.
The Advocacy Handbook
  • This Handbook examines five crucial steps that should underlie any advocacy effort to reverse the overrepresentation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system: understand the issue, anticipate frequently asked questions, identify and know your audience, take action, leverage resources.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Justice-Involved Populations (2013)
  • Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (COCHS) has produced a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document addressing how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) impacts the justice-involved population.
Beaver County Sequential Intercept Model and System of Care
  • A copy of a presentation made at the PA Forensic Rights Conference, Grantville PA December 2011. The document provides an overview of strategies Beaver County has used to implement the Sequential Intercept Model and a System of Care. Included are needs and interventions for their community at each intercept point.
BMC Psychiatry- Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia
  • This study examines cost implications as a result of persons treated for schizophrenia, in the United States, becoming involved in criminal justice system.
Center of Excellence-Authored Article Published in Psychiatric Services
  • Cross, A. B., Mulvey, E. P., Schubert, C. A., Griffin, P. A., Filone, S., Winckworth-Prejsnar, K., DeMatteo, D. & Heilbrun, K. (2014). An Agenda for Advancing Research on Crisis Intervention Teams for Mental Health Emergencies. Psychiatric Services, 65(4), 530-536.
  • The popularity of crisis intervention teams (CITs) for law enforcement agencies has grown dramatically over the past decade. Law enforcement agencies and advocates for individuals with mental illness view the model as a clear improvement in the way the criminal justice system handles individuals with mental illness. There is, however, only limited empirical support for the perceived effectiveness of CITs. This aticle analyzes research needs in this area and offers recommendations. The article was authored by the staff of the Center of Excellence.
A Checklist for Implementing Evidence-Based Practices and Programs for Justice-Involved Adults with Behavioral Health Disorders
  • SAMHSA's GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation and the Council of State Governments Justice Center have prepared this easy-to-use checklist to help behavioral health agencies assess their utilization of EBPs associated with positive public safety and public health outcomes. The checklist is divided into two sections: Building a Cross-Collaborative System to Support the Implementation of EBPs and Assessing and Implementing Effective Programs.
Children of Incarcerated Parents- An Action Plan for Federal Policymakers
  • This document contains several sections which cover the issue of incarcerated parents: Coordination across Service Systems, Responses to Children during a Parent's Arrest, Parent-Child Interactions within Correctional Systems, Support for Kinship Caregivers of Children, Foster Care and Permanence, Child Support, State and Federal Benefits and Income Support.
Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, 1993-2014
  • From the National Institute of Justice, Victim and Victimization Research Division, the compendium is updated annually to give researchers and support providers easier access to recent evidence-based findings. The Compendium includes an abstract of each grant research study with details on how to find further publications.
The Comprehensive Justice and Mental Health Act of 2015
  • The Comprehensive Justice and Mental Health Act will help people in prison get better access to mental health care. This bill amends the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to authorize the Attorney General to make grants to an eligible entity for sequential intercept mapping and implementation for: a) mental health and criminal justice stakeholders to develop a shared understanding of the flow of individuals with mental illnesses through the criminal justice system, and identify opportunities for improved responses, including emergency and crisis services, specialized police-based responses, and community and post-prison supervision; and b) hiring and training personnel, identifying target populations, and providing services to reduce recidivism. It also authorizes support for veterans' treatment courts that serve arrested veterans with PTSD, substance abuse, or other mental health conditions. To read more about the bill and find out the status in Congress, click here.
Consensus Project Report Overview
  • Provides a quick, visual overview of multiple sections of the Consensus Project's Report: The Problem, The Report, A Bipartisan Consensus, A Tool to Focus on Specific Aspects of the Problem, Assistance with the Implementation of the Report Recommendations.
Consumer Rights Come to Jail: How the Affordable Care Act Changes the Rights of Individuals Pending Disposition
  • In this issue brief, Daniel J. Mistak, J.D., General Counsel at the Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, discusses how the ACA has expanded affordability of, and access to, health care and granted rights and responsibilities specifically to individuals in jail pending disposition (May, 2015)
Costs of Criminal Justice Involvement among Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Connecticut (Jeffrey Swanson, et al., 2011)
  • States’ public mental health and substance abuse services departments, correction systems, and social welfare programs all face challenges in serving justice-involved individuals with disabling psychiatric illnesses and addiction disorders. To what extent—how “deeply”—are people with SMI involved with the criminal justice system and how much does this cost states? Solid information to answer this important question has been lacking. This report presents the results of the first comprehensive study of the patterns and costs of criminal justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder served in a state’s public mental health and addiction services agencies.
  • Among individuals serious mental illness who received services in Connecticut, about one in four was involved with the justice system during the two-year period. The justice-involved group incurred costs approximately double those of the group with no involvement—$48,980 compared with $24,728 per person. Costs were shared by several state agencies and Medicaid.
  • Published article can be found here
The Cost of Assisted Outpatient Treatment: Can It Save States Money? (Swanson et al., 2013)
  • Swanson, J. W., Van Dorn, R. A., Swartz, M. S., Robbins, P. C., Steadman, H. J., McGuire, T. G., & Monahan, J. (2013). The cost of assisted outpatient treatment: Can it save states money?. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(12), 1423-1432.
    The authors assessed a state’s net costs for assisted outpatient treatment, a controversial court-ordered program of community-based mental health services designed to improve outcomes for persons with serious mental illness and a history of repeated hospitalizations attributable to nonadherence with outpatient treatment. Analysis revealed that assisted outpatient treatment requires a substantial investment of state resources but can reduce overall service costs for persons with serious mental illness.
Crime in 2015
  • A report by the Brennan Center for Justice concludes that overall crime in 2015 is projected to decrease by 5.5 percent from 2014. See both the original report and the update from December 2015.
Criminal Victimization, 2014
  • The Bureau of Justice Statistics finds that violent crime rate did not change significantly in 2014 compared to 2013. Violent crimes include rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. In 2014, the violent crime rate was 20.1 victimizations per 1,000 U.S. residents age 12 or older. Read the full report here.
Criminalization of the Mentally Ill: Exploring Causes and Current Evidence in the United States (Lurigio, Nov/Dec 2013 Issue of The Criminologist)
  • This essay examines four common beliefs about the criminalization of PSMI – that criminally involved PSMI are a homogeneous group, that deinstitutionalization is responsible for the purported increase of PSMI in correctional populations, that treatment is the key to reducing crime and recidivism among criminally involved PSMI, and that the enforcement of drug laws has contributed to the growing numbers of PSMI in the criminal justice system.
CSG Justice Center- Information Sharing in Criminal Justice-Mental Health Collaborations- Working with HIPAA and Other Privacy Laws
  • This guide is intended to help criminal justice officials work with health professionals to better use other systems' information, when appropriate, to reduce criminal justice involvement among people with mental illnesses and provide better links to treatment.
Decriminalizing Mental Illness: Miami Dade County Tackles a Crisis at the Roots, National Council Magazine
  • The 2010 Issue of National Council Magazine, a publication which focuses on sharing the best practices in mental health & addictions treatment. The article regarding Miami Dade County is on page 18.
Developing a statewide, strategic plan to guide Pennsylvania's response to people with mental illnesses involved with the criminal justice system
  • The Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare and the Council of State Governments Justice Center developed this report in 2007 describing a statewide plan for improving outcomes for people with mental illnesses involved with the criminal justice system in Pennsylvania.
Development of a Performance-Based RFP for Correctional Health Care Services in Vermont
  • In this issue paper, Ben Watts, M.B.A., Research Associate, Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, presents a case study which describes the policy environment that prompted the Vermont DOC’s health care system, in partnership with community-based organizations, to develop the first statewide performance-based Request for Proposals (RFP) and subsequent contract for correctional health care services in alignment with federal and state health care reforms. It also describes how this massive paradigm shift was achieved, as well as lessons learned that may be helpful to other jurisdictions interested in pursuing a similar contract model for their correctional health service programs. This may be a useful model for other states. (March 2015).
Effects of Outpatient Treatment on Risk of Arrest of Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Associated Costs (Van Dorn et al., 2013)
  • Van Dorn, R. A., Desmarais, S. L., Petrila, J., Haynes, D., & Singh, J. P. (2013). Effects of outpatient treatment on risk of arrest of adults with serious mental illness and associated costs. Psychiatric Services, 64(9), 856-862.
    This study examined whether possession of psychotropic medication and receipt of outpatient services reduce the likelihood of post-hospitalization arrest among adults with serious mental illness. Results indicated that monthly medication possession and receipt of outpatient services reduced the likelihood of any arrests (misdemeanor or felony) and of misdemeanor arrests. Authors concluded that routine outpatient treatment may reduce the likelihood of arrest among adults with serious mental illness. Medication possession over a 90-day period after hospitalization appears to confer additional protection. Overall, costs were lower for those who were not arrested, even when they used more outpatient services.
Eligibility of Pre-trial Detainees Under The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - FINAL PAPER
  • Patricia Blair, Robert Greifinger, T. Howard Stone and Sarah Somers for the American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section describe the potential impact of the ACA on the segment of the expanded population that intersects with the criminal justice system.
Ending an American Tragedy- Addressing the Needs of Justice-Involved People with Mental Illness and Co-Occurring Disorders
  • This article discusses the neglect of proper care for persons with mental illness in the criminal justice system and strategies for immediate action to remedy this.
Fight Crime and Save Money: Development of an Investment Tool for States to Study Sentencing and Corrections Public Policy Options--Progress Report
  • This progress report describes the work underway by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) to develop an analytical tool for Washington, and perhaps other states, to identify evidence-based policy options to reduce crime rates and lower the taxpayer costs of the criminal justice system.
Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations
  • This Justice Policy Institute report compares and contrasts the criminal justice policies and social, economic, and governmental structures of five countries – Australia, Canada, England and Wales, Finland and Germany – to the United States towards creating momentum for the types of systemic reforms that will reduce the burden of over-incarceration on communities, states, and the country as a whole.
Frequently Asked Questions: Implications of Health Reform on Justice-Involved Populations
  • The changes brought about by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, signed into law by President Barack Obama in March 2010 and commonly referred to as the "health reform" law, will have a significant impact on how people involved in the criminal justice system can access public health insurance and services. This document addresses the implications of the law for justice-involved adults.
From Silo to System: What makes the criminal justice system operate like a system.
  • The criminal justice system has long struggled with ways to work more efficiently and effectively with fewer dollars. The Justice Management Institute (JMI) conducted a study of 8 U.S. counties that show promise in this area (Allegheny County in Pennsylvania is one of the 8). The report focuses on the shared characteristics of these counties that make them effective in the overall administration of justice.
GAINS Center Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs)
The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences (2014)
  • Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. prison population is largely drawn from the most disadvantaged part of the nation's population: mostly men under age 40, disproportionately minority, and poorly educated. Prisoners often carry additional deficits of drug and alcohol addictions, mental and physical illnesses, and lack of work preparation or experience. The growth of incarceration in the United States during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for U.S. society.
A Guide to Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System
  • This guide (produced by NAMI) is intended to serve as an aid for those people thrust into interaction with local criminal justice systems. The intent is to provide information that is useful for consumers, family members and advocates in developing a basic understanding of criminal procedures and terminology. Additionally, the guide includes helpful hints to enable families and others to impact at the various stages of criminal processes.
Guidebook on Developing & Implementing Peer Roles within Provider Organizations
  • This manual strives to: 1) provide you with best practices in peer support; 2) offer tips based on the experiences of other programs that have been studied; and 3) provide a “Nuts and Bolts” toolbox for you and your organization to use.
HIPAA and Information Sharing Between the Mental Health and Criminal Justice Systems
  • Dispelling the Myths about Information Sharing Between the Mental Health and Criminal Justice Systems and an example of an information sharing MOU.
The impact on taxpayer costs of a jail diversion program for people with serious mental illness (Cowell et al., 2013)
  • Mental illness is prevalent among those incarcerated. Jail diversion is one means by which people with mental illness are treated in the community - often with some criminal justice system oversight - instead of being incarcerated. Jail diversion may lead to immediate reductions in taxpayer costs because the person is no longer significantly engaged with the criminal justice system. It may also lead to longer term reductions in costs because effective treatment may ameliorate symptoms, reduce the number of future offenses, and thus subsequent arrests and incarceration. This study estimates the impact on taxpayer costs of a model jail diversion program for people with serious mental illness. Administrative data on criminal justice and treatment events were combined with primary and secondary data on the costs of each event. Propensity score methods and a quasi-experimental design were used to compare treatment and criminal justice costs for a group of people who were diverted to a group of people who were not diverted. Diversion was associated with approximately $2800 lower taxpayer costs per person 2 years after the point of diversion (p < .05). Reductions in criminal justice costs drove this result. Jail diversion for people with mental illness may thus be justified fiscally.
Improving Corrections Policies and Practices: An Integrated Model of Corrections Founded on Evidence Based Practices
  • NIC report on the Crime & Justice Institute integrative model of corrections.
Incarcerated Women and Girls – Fact Sheet
  • Over the past quarter century, there has been a profound change in the involvement of women within the criminal justice system. This is the result of more expansive law enforcement efforts, stiffer drug sentencing laws, and post-conviction barriers to reentry that uniquely affect women. Women now comprise a larger proportion of the prison population than ever before; the female prison population stands nearly eight times higher than its population count in 1980. The Sentencing Project recently (12/15) released a fact sheet describing this population. Access the fact sheet here.
Incarceration’s Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America (2015)
  • Although jails serve an important function in local justice systems—to hold people deemed too dangerous to release pending trial or at high risk of flight—this is no longer primarily what jails do or whom they hold. Underlying the behavior that lands people in jail, there is often a history of substance abuse, mental illness, poverty, failure in school, and homelessness. The report is an encyclopedic examination of jail use—who’s in jail and the myriad paths leading there.
  • To read the report summary, click here.
Information Brief: Implications of The Affordable Care Act on People Involved with the Criminal Justice System (Council of State Governments)
  • This brief provides an overview of the implications of the ACA for adults involved with the criminal justice system, as well as information about how professionals in the criminal justice field can help this population access the services now available to them.
The Interceptor: Newsletter from Community Advocates of Montgomery County
  • March 2010 issue.
The Intersection of Public Health and Public Safety in U.S. Jails: Implications and Opportunities of Federal Health Care Reform
  • Bonita Vesey of the School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers--The State University of New Jersey, provides an overview of the issues in which health reform, public safety and criminal justice interact.
Interventions at “Early” Intercept Points Helps Reduce Involvement of Persons with Mental Illness in Criminal Justice Systems and County Jails
  • This “Under the Microscope” issue (produced by the National Association of County Behavioral Health & Developmental Disabilities Directors) focuses on “front end” interventions — collaborative programs that offer early opportunities to deliver care while minimizing the involvement of individuals with mental health disorders in the justice system. They focus on two Ohio counties that demonstrate the kinds of positive steps counties can take.
Involving users in the delivery and evaluation of mental health services: A systematic review
  • Review of 298 papers about involving consumers in mental health treatment--5 randomized controlled trials and 7 other comparative studies were identified and used.
Key Issues in Screening and Assessment of Co-occurring Disorders in the Justice System
  • This 2016 SAMHSA publication examines a wide range of evidence-based practices for screening and assessment of adults in the justice system who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders.
Lessons Learned through The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati’s Substance Use Disorder and Severe Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System Initiative (The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati, 2014)
  • This publication presents findings from an evaluation of programs funded through the Substance Use Disorder and Severe Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System Initiative. The study found that the programs led to positive health and criminal justice outcomes, including improved mental health, reduced substance use, and reduced recidivism. The initiative, which began in 1999, was designed to improve the outcomes for individuals in the Greater Cincinnati area who are involved with the criminal justice system and who have severe mental illnesses and substance use disorders. The initiative has awarded grants to 99 programs and organizations in the area that engage in a wide range of activities focused on individuals with mental and behavioral health needs who are involved in the criminal justice system.
Managing and Treating Justice-Involved Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Pennsylvania
  • This 2012 report by the Center of Excellence staff summarizes issues related to the management and treatment of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system.
Medicaid and Criminal Justice: The Need for Cross-System Collaboration Post Health Care Reform
  • Allison Hamblin, Stephen A. Somers, Sheree Neese-Todd and Roopa Mahadevan of the Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc., discuss the role of state Medicaid agencies in stimulating the market for treatment services and assuring appropriate conditions of participation.
Medicaid Claiming and Public Safety Agencies
  • Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (May 2015) provides an Issue Paper that addresses the issue of the underuse of Targeted Case Management (TCM) to help meet the needs of individuals involved in the justice sytem. The issue paper explains that a significant portion of the probation, parole and public safety agencies are now Medicaid-eligible and these agencies can take action to claim for reimbursable activities that they are already performing on a regular basis.
Medicaid Coverage for Jail Inmate’s Inpatient Hospitalizations
  • In this article, Steven Rosenberg of Community Oriented Correctional Health Services offers some policy considerations that Sheriff department’s and local government might find useful if considering the jail inpatient hospitalization option (April, 2015)
Medicaid-funded Paraprofessional Services for Criminal Justice Populations
  • In this issue paper, Matt Bechelli from Community Oriented Correctional Health Services discusses how improving health for populations that have experienced health disparities may require going beyond the conventional boundaries of health care to address social factors that affect health, including housing, employment, and criminal justice involvement. He suggests that the unique combination of experience and flexibility that paraprofessional health workers possess makes them ideally suited to serve justice-involved populations. This report describes how paraprofessional health workers can help justice-involved populations and discusses opportunities to fund paraprofessional services for the justice-involved through Medicaid. (November, 2014)
Mental Health Consumer Providers- A Guide for Clinical Staff
  • The purpose of this booklet is to provide mental health clinic staff with a brief guide to implementing and sustaining a consumer provider program. Consumer providers (CPs) are individuals with serious mental illness who are trained to use their experiences to provide recovery-oriented services and support to others with mental illness in a mental health service delivery setting.
Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds
  • This summary describes research which analyzed 429 crimes committed by 143 offenders with three major types of mental illness and found that 3 percent of their crimes were directly related to symptoms of major depression, 4 percent to symptoms of schizophrenia disorders and 10 percent to symptoms of bipolar disorder. “When we hear about crimes committed by people with mental illness, they tend to be big headline-making crimes so they get stuck in people’s heads,” said lead researcher Jillian Peterson, PhD. “The vast majority of people with mental illness are not violent, not criminal and not dangerous.”
Mentally Ill Offenders in the Criminal Justice System: An Analysis and Prescription
  • This report by the Sentencing Project represents an analysis of the “criminalization” of people with mental illness and its impact on the criminal justice system. The report includes recommendations for change.
Miami-Dade County Grand Jury Report- Shifting the Focus on Treating Mental illness: A Common "Cents" Approach
  • This report addresses the issue of involuntary treatment of persons with mental illness, a tragic example of this, and how shifting our focus to "Does the person understand he is sick and can we provide treatment?" can save lives and save money.
Miami-Dade County Mayor's Mental Health Task Force- Final report
  • Reflects the response of the Mental Health Task Force to the recommendations contained in the Spring Term 2004 Grand Jury report entitled, Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System: A Recipe for Disaster / A Prescription for Improvement and how these were implemented.
More Mentally Ill Persons Are in Jails and Prisons than Hospitals: A Survey of the States
  • Torrey et al., 2010. A survey of states conducted by the Treatment Advocacy Center and National Sheriff's Association finds that there are three times more mentally ill persons in jails than in hospitals. The authors claim that jails have become the new mental hospitals and advocate for expanded access to mental health beds for seriously mentally ill persons.
Multistate Criminal History Patterns of Prisoners Released in 30 States
  • In September, 2015 BJS just released a new study on recidivism with a sample size of 400,000+ from 30 states. Read the report here.
A National Survey of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs and Initiatives
  • The Center for Health and Justice at TASC completed a national survey of criminal justice diversion programs, focusing on their strategies that are used as alternatives to traditional criminal justice processing.
National Child Trauma Stress Network
  • Summarizes the Sanctuary Model.
No Entry: A National Survey of Criminal Justice Diversion Programs and Initiatives (The Center for Health and Justice at TASC, 2013)
  • Across the United States, criminal justice systems are managing record numbers of people with rates of substance use and mental health disorders that are exponentially higher than those of the general public. Project staff surveyed diversion programs and interventions with the intention of spotlighting program design, participating stakeholders, affected communities, implementation challenges and successes, and where available, cost savings and overall effectiveness, aiming also to express the scale of their existence across the country. Rather than providing an exhaustive tally of each of the thousands of programs across the country, the report presents summary descriptions of various diversion programs at several specific phases of involvement in the justice system, and offers observations and themes that emerged from the survey to lay a foundation upon which to advance national and local diversion conversations.
Opportunities For Information Sharing To Enhance Health And Public Safety Outcomes (2013)
  • From the IJIS Institute and the Urban Institute. Information sharing between the criminal justice and healthcare communities has the potential to enhance both public safety and health outcomes by reducing redundancies, enhancing continuity of care, and generating efficiencies in both domains. Thirty-four (34) beneficial opportunities for inter-domain information exchange were identified by a BJA-sponsored working group of experts from both the health and justice communities. Used judiciously, and with the necessary legal and technical safeguards to protect privacy and confidentiality, bi-directional sharing of health information between community-based care providers and correctional institutions can be used to divert individuals from the criminal justice system (when appropriate), better provide for their health needs while under justice supervision, and prepare for a successful post-release transition to the community. Information from community-based healthcare providers can enhance the ability of corrections officials to appropriately diagnose issues associated with continuity of care and to ensure no gap in service when incarcerated. Likewise, information from the criminal justice community—including risk assessments, correctional health records, correctional treatment history, and court dates—can support health providers in their care of justice-involved clients.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
  • H.R. 3590 (111th): Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Pennsylvania Mental Health Procedures Act Amended
  • In March 2014,House Bill 21 (PN 114) passed the Senate unanimously and was subsequently signed by Governor Corbett. This amendment to the Pennsylvania Mental Health Procedures Act (MHPA) permits a licensed psychiatrist or a licensed psychologist to perform the examination regarding competence to stand trial and/or mental state at the time of the offense under Section 402 and 404 of the Mental Health Procedures Act. Previously these evaluations could be conducted only by psychiatrists, under the MHPA.
Pennsylvania State Criminal Justice Profile (May, 2013)
  • From the US Bureau of Justice Assistance, factsheet describes the $14 million in state and local funds BJA provided to Pennsylvania in FY 2012.
Persons with Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: What Families, Providers, and Law Enforcement Should Know
  • Montgomery County Emergency Services Department (2007) newsletter describing issues related to persons with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system and explains how the sequential intercept model can help identify pathways to diversions for this population
Practice Guidelines- Core Elements for Responding to mental Health Crises
  • This is a guideline of ten essential values to define appropriate responses to mental health crises, and fifteen principles for enacting these essential values. They were developed by a diverse expert panel that includes individuals with and without serious mental illnesses who are leaders within mental health professions and mental health advocacy.
Prevalence of Mental Illness among US Inmates
  • A 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics report containing national statistics regarding the prevalence of mental illness among prison and jail inmates.
Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide
  • This guide was authored by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse and updated in 2012. It provides an overview of drug abuse treatment research, essential principles, frequently asked questions, and resources for the criminal justice and treatment professionals working with individuals involved in the criminal justice system.
Prison-based peer-education schemes
  • An article that looks at peer programs in correctional settings and targets topics such as: HIV/AIDS and health education, drug and alcohol abuse, sexual assault/offending, and prison orientation.
The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System (The Urban Institute, 2015)
  • The report focuses on the societal and economic costs of holding mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons. It also presents a discussion of how mentally ill offenders are processed in the criminal justice system, highlighting the diversity of protocols and practices outlined in state statutes to address these challenges.
  • To read the full report, click here.
Realizing the Potential of National Health Care Reform to Reduce Criminal Justice Expenditures and Recidivism Among Jail Populations
  • Maureen McDonnell, Laura Brookes, Arthur Lurigio, Daphne Baille and colleagues of The Center for Health and Justice at TASC-IL supply a field-based analysis of the issues involved in system change.
Recidivism Rates Drop in Pennsylvania State Prison System (2015)
  • Department of Corrections Secretary John Wetzel announced what he called "exciting" statistics on recidivism in the state corrections system demonstrating that prison reform efforts are showing concrete results in the area of public safety.
Reforming Mental Health Law to Protect Public Safety and Help the Severely Mentally Ill
  • In this article, the authors (Kopel & Cramer, 2015) discuss how to reduce gun violence, while respecting civil rights. They assert that one such means is to provide much more help to people who suffer from severe mental illness. The biggest violence-reductive effect would be in diminishing the number of crimes against the mentally ill, who are disproportionately victimized. The full citation for this article is: Kopel, David B. and Cramer, Clayton E., Reforming Mental Health Law to Protect Public Safety and Help the Severely Mentally Ill (March 21, 2015). Howard Law Journal, Forthcoming; U Denver Legal Studies Research Paper No. 15-05. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2564680
Responding to a High-Profile, Tragic Incident Involving a Person with a Serious Mental Illness: A Toolkit for State Mental Health Commissioners
  • This CSG Justice Center toolkit provides practical tips regarding communications, response planning, briefings and checklists for mental health commissioners and other responders to high-profile tragedies underpinned by relevant research on the perceived link between mental illness and violence.
SAMHSA, CMHS- Mental Health, United States
  • This chapter presents detailed information on current issues in the understanding and monitoring of mental health in the United States; the prevalence of mental disorders, distress, and impairment; and treatment rates among Americans.
SAMHSA's Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach
  • SAMHSA's Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach, prepared by SAMHSA’s Trauma and Justice Strategic Initiative, introduces a concept of trauma and offers a framework for how an organization, system, service sector can become trauma informed by integrating the perspectives of researchers, practitioners, and people with lived experience of trauma.
SAMHSA's Leading Change 2.0: Advancing the Behavioral Health of the Nation 2015-2018
  • SAMHSA’s strategic plan outlines six key initiatives: Prevention of substance abuse and mental illness, health care and health systems integration, trauma and justice, recovery support, health information technology, and workforce development.
  • To download the document in PDF format, click here.
SAMSHA Regional Behavioral Health Barometers
  • In September, 2015, SAMHSA announced the availability of a new series of behavioral health barometers. These barometers divide existing SAMHSA data into separate reports for each of the 10 HHS regions of the United States. Adult mental health and treatment, substance use, and substance use and treatment are among the topics addressed in the report. Pennsylvania is covered in Region III. A copy of the report for Region III is provided on the COE website here.
Sequential Intercept Model Background Article
  • This is the original Psychiatric Services journal article explaining the Sequential Intercept Model.
The Special Needs of Women with Co-Occurring Disorders Diverted from the Criminal Justice System
  • Monograph of special needs of women with co-occurring disorders diverted from the criminal justice system.
Statement on Cultural Competence In Evidence-Based Practices: Shaping Mental Health Services Toward Recovery
  • See page 57 of this document for a statement on cultural competence in evidence-based practices.
State Mental Health Cuts: A National Crisis
  • This report examines state-by-state funding changes to services such as community- and hospital-based psychiatric care, housing, and access to medications and projects how these cuts will deepen in the future.
STEPPING UP: A National Initiative to Reduce the Number of People with Mental Illnesses in Jails
  • The National Association of Counties (NACo) and the Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center will lead an unprecedented national initiative to help advance counties’ efforts to reduce the number of adults with mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders in jails.
  • To download a summary of the initiative in PDF format, click here.
Summary of implication of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 for Correction Populations
  • This document summarizes the implications of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 Act for the corrections population.
Technology and Continuity of Care: Connecting Justice and Health (Nine Cases Studies)
  • Many jurisdictions are using some form of Sequential Intercept Mapping5 to convene community stakeholders to determine where services or other opportunities exist for this vulnerable population. Other jurisdictions are exploring the use of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)6, which was developed to create intergovernmental data exchange with a focus on the justice sector. This framework has recently expanded into health exchanges. In this document, authors Ben Butler, Nan Torrey, Ben Watts, Daniel J. Mistak, and Leta Smith, representing Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, use nine case studies to illustrate how health and justice stakeholders can create data sharing systems.
Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services
  • This guideline manual by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration uses trauma-informed principles to address trauma-related prevention, screening, assessment, intervention, and treatment issues and strategies.
Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration for People with Mental Health Needs in the Criminal Justice System: The Cost-Savings Implications (Vera Institute, 2013)
  • This research summary recognizes that the disproportionate number of people with behavioral health disorders involved in the criminal justice system puts a tremendous strain on scarce public resources and has a huge impact on health care and criminal justice budgets. However, it demonstrates that with appropriate treatment and access to community-based services, this population is less likely to be incarcerated and more likely to lead healthy, productive lives—while resulting in substantial costs savings.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy's Benefit-Cost Tool for States: Examining Policy Options in Sentencing and Correction
  • The Washington State Institute for Public Policy has constructed an analytical tool for the Washington legislature to help identify evidence-based sentencing and programming policy options to reduce crime and taxpayer criminal justice costs.
What differentiates persons with mental illness who are and are not justice involved?
  • Gross, N.R. & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Understanding persons with mental illness who are and are not criminal justice involved: a comparison of criminal thinking and psychiatric symptoms. Law & Human Behavior, 37(3), 175-186. Doi: 10.1037/lhb0000013.

    In this research article, the authors looked to clarify the similarities and differences in criminal thinking and psychiatric symptomatology between persons with mental illness who are and are not involved in the criminal justice system. The authors found that individuals with no justice involvement (current or past) evidenced fewer thinking styles supportive of a criminal lifestyle and had significantly lower levels of psychopathology ( a risk factor for criminal justice involvement) as compared to those individual who were justice-involved at some point.
Working with Justice-involved Women
  • See an infographic about justice-involved women

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Sequential Intercept 1: Law Enforcement

An Agenda for Advancing Research on Crisis Intervention Teams for Mental Health Emergencies (Cross et al., 2014)
  • Cross, A. B., Mulvey, E. P., Schubert, C. A., Griffin, P. A., Filone, S., Winckworth-Prejsnar, K., DeMatteo, D. & Heilbrun, K. (2014). An Agenda for Advancing Research on Crisis Intervention Teams for Mental Health Emergencies. Psychiatric Services, 65(4), 530-536. The article was authored by the staff of the Center of Excellence. It analyzes previous literature on CIT and offers recommendations for future research.
A Guide to Implementing Police-Based Diversion Programs for People with Mental Illness
  • The National GAINS Center’s TAPA Center for Jail Diversion has published this report containing practical information regarding specialized police response approaches and how to implement them.
"A Revolving Door? Homeless People and the Justice System in Toronto"
  • A report from the Centre for Urban and Community Studies, research bulletin #36, July 2007.
Center of Excellence Brief Report: Crisis Intervention Team Policing (CIT)
  • Document summarizes the contextual background and empirical evidence on CIT (created 2012)
Childhood Trauma and Its Implications for Police
  • Repeated exposure to violence, abuse or neglect during childhood can have traumatic and long-lasting effects that impair adolescent and young adult functioning. The individual may be hyper-reactive to perceived threats, have difficulty calming down and exhibit impulsive behavior. A New Perspectives in Policing paper discusses symptoms of trauma and their practical implications for police. The author explains how training to recognize and appropriately respond to trauma will allow for better early interventions for children exposed to violence, improve de-escalation of incidents involving traumatized individuals, and lead to more referrals to support services. Read the paper here.
CIT Toolkit
  • This toolkit from the Ohio Criminal Justice Coordinating Center of Excellence is described as “everything you need to know to start CIT in your community.”
Community Response Team (CRT): A Strategy for Early Diversion in Colorado
  • The Community Response Team (CRT) is comprised of three community agencies to include the community mental health center, police department and fire department of Colorado Springs. Read more about this innovation program. To learn more about the program, the GAINS Center newsletter (Feb 2016) features a summary of the program or you can view the program website here.
"A Comparison of Prebooking and Postbooking Diversion Programs for Mentally Ill Substance-Using Individuals With Justice Involvement"
  • Link to Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 2003 article (Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice February 2003 vol. 19 no. 1 30-64).
    Eight programs are described representing a variety of approaches to diversion in terms of point of criminal justice intervention (prebooking or postbooking), degree of criminal justice coercion, type of linkages provided to community-based treatment, and approaches to treatment retention. The authors also describe the characteristics of almost 1000 study participants who were diverted into these programs over an 18-month period and examine the extent to which systematic differences are observed between prebooking and postbooking subjects, as well as among sites in each of the diversion types. Results suggest that prebooking and postbooking diversion subjects were similar on most mental health indicators, but differed substantially on measures of social functioning and substance use and criminality, with postbooking subjects scoring worse on social functioning and reporting more serious substance use and criminal histories. Variability among sites was also observed, indicating differences in local preferences for the types of individuals deemed appropriate for diversion.
"A Comprehensive Review of Extant Research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs"
  • Link to Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, article published in 2008 (J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2008;36(1):47-55).
Crisis Care Services for Counties
  • Produced by the National Association of Counties, this publication provides a resource for the diversion of individuals with mental illness from local correctional systems.
Crisis Services: Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Funding Strategies (June 2014)
  • This report presents evidence in support of crisis services and the experiences of crisis service delivery and financing for eight states. Many states have a variety of programs that include work with law enforcement as an adjunct to the crisis services continuum. The Massachusetts state mental health agency is partnering with police for jail diversion programs. Other states including Maine, Missouri, and Tennessee partner with law enforcement through Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT).
  • To download the document in PDF format, click here.
Data Points to Track for Intercept 1: Law Enforcement
  • Document by the Center of Excellence that contains potential data points that a county might track in order to evaluate the impact of the law enforcement responses to mental health emergences.
Enhancing Success of Police-Based Diversion Programs for People with Mental Illness
  • GAINS Center report.
Faces of Recovery: Supporting People in Housing
  • OMHSAS report describing Crisis Intervention/Mobile Crisis programs, namely those in Clearfield/Jefferson and Dauphin Counties (PA), among other programs. Contact information is also provided.
FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
  • This 2001 report features an evaluation report card of the Albuquerque, New Mexico Police Department’s Crisis Intervention Team and highlights both significant outcomes and the methods used to achieve them.
First Do No Harm: Advancing Public Health in Policing Practices
  • This report from the Vera Institute of Justice contains recommendations on how community health providers and police can work together to promote access to health services for marginalized populations involved with criminal justice system—people who live in poverty, use drugs, or have mental health disorders—while also reducing rates of rearrest and incarceration.
First-Episode Incarceration: Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses
  • In January 2016, the VERA Institute released a report which addresses fundamental questions about the effectiveness of services for people with mental illness who come into contact with the justice system. Drawing upon interviews with experts in the field, the authors address shortcomings in existing services and describe steps to reach people sooner with interventions that can help prevent future arrest and incarceration. Read the report here.
Getting Inside the Black Box: Understanding How Jail Diversion Works
  • August 2010 featured article from the GAINS Center.
The Impact of Probation and Parole Populations on Arrests in Four California Cities (2013)
  • This study from the Council of State Governments answers the question: to what extent do people on parole and probation contribute to overall crime rates? The Chiefs of the Los Angeles, Redlands, Sacramento, and San Francisco Police Departments commissioned the analysis in 2010. Researchers at the CSG Justice Center collected and matched more than 2.5 million arrest, parole, and probation records generated between January 1, 2008 and June 11, 2011. Among the most notable findings in these four jurisdictions:
    • The majority of all adult felony and misdemeanor arrests were of people who were not currently under supervision. People under supervision accounted for only 22 percent of total arrests.
    • Whereas people under probation and parole supervision accounted for one out of every six arrests for violent crimes, they accounted for one out of every three drug arrests.
    • During a 3.5 year period in which total arrests fell by 18 percent, the number of arrests involving individuals under parole supervision declined by 61 percent and by 26 percent for individuals under probation supervision.
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses - Tailoring Law Enforcement Initiatives to Individual Jurisdictions
  • Explores the program design process, including detailed examples from several communities from across the county. It is meant to assist initiative leaders and agents of change who want to select or adapt program features from models that will be most effective in their communities. (Coordinated by the CSG Justice Center, with support from the BJA, U.S. Department of Justice)
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses - The Essential Elements of a Specialized Law Enforcement-Based Program
  • Describes the 10 important program elements that jurisdictions should consider when planning, implementing or enhancing a specialized law enforcement-based response.
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses - Strategies for Effective Law Enforcement Training
  • Reviews common challenges to developing training for officersx' interactions involving people with mental illnesses, and synthesizes the key lessons learned by jurisdictions that have implemented recruit or in-service program. Discusses which individuals can best serve as trainers, how they can be identified, what preparation and support they require, what teaching techniques are most effective, and how planners can design training to improve outcomes from these encounters.
International Association of Chiefs of Police Recent Report Entitled Building Safer Communities
  • This report presents the findings and recommendations from a national summit held by IACP in May 2009 to address the millions of encounters between law enforcement and persons with mental illness in our communities.
Jail Diversion & Trauma Recovery – Priority to Veterans
  • February 2011 publication by the GAINS Center detailing the numerous ways this initiative has reshaped how communities and states address the behavioral health service needs of justice-involved veterans.
Justice and Injustice - Homelessness, Crime, Victimization, and the Criminal Justice System
  • Research Paper 207 from the Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto with the John Howard Society of Toronto, November 2006.
Justifiable Homicides by Law Enforcement Officers: What is the role of mental illness?
  • Untreated severe mental illness is an increasing factor in officer-involved homicides, according to a study by the Treatment Advocacy Center and the National Sheriffs’ Association. The report found while the total number of incidents classed as “justifiable homicides” decreased from 1980-2008, the number resulting from an attack on an officer increased by 67%. At least half the people shot and killed by police each year are believed to have mental health problems, the report said. The report makes three recommendations for decreasing the number of justifiable homicides associated with severe mental illness.
    • Collect better data in order to increase information about the issue.
    • Return the responsibility for individuals with serious mental illness to the mental health system.
    • Use assisted outpatient treatment (AOT).
Law Enforcement/Mental Health Partnership Program
  • Describes a Consensus Project national initiative to provide resources for law enforcement leaders and their community partners to develop and enhance law enforcement/ mental health programs.
Law Enforcement Responses to People with Mental Illness: A guide to research informed policy and practice
  • The guide examines studies on law enforcement interactions with people with mental illnesses and translates the findings to help policymakers and practitioners develop safe and effective interventions.
National Association of Counties (NACo)- Crisis Care Services for Counties - Preventing Individuals with Mental Illnesses from Entering Local Corrections System
  • Describes several examples of counties which offer various forms of crisis care services.
PA Premise Alert
  • Premise is a free, voluntary safety program that allows individuals and families to notify the police, fire fighters and other first responders about disabilities, health conditions or other access or functional needs. Individuals fill out a form with their specific needs, give it to their local police department and that information is provided to the local 9-1-1 center in case of an emergency.
"The Police and Mental Health"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, which published this article in 2002 (Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Oct;53(10):1266-71).
Police Negotiations with War Veterans
  • FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (July 2011) describing strategies for police in responding to cases involving war veterans.
The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing Report
  • The Community Oriented Policing Services, US Department of Justice, is supporting national efforts to implement the recommendations outlined in the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing Report. The Task Force recommendations provide meaningful solutions to help law enforcement agencies and communities strengthen trust and collaboration, while ushering the nation into the next phase of community-focused policing. The Task Force recommendations are divided into six pillars: 1) building trust & legitimacy, 2) policy & oversight, 3) technology & social media, 4) community policing & crime reduction, 5) training and education and 6) officer wellness & safety.
Problem-Oriented Guides for Police: People with Mental Illness
  • Authored by Gary Cordner (2006). Part of the Problem-Specific Guides Series published by the Community Oriented Policing Office of the U.S. Department of Justice. The guides are designed to summarize knowledge about how police can reduce the harm caused by specific crime and disorder problems. They are guides to prevention and to improving the overall response to incidents, not to investigating offenses or handling specific incidents. The guides are written for police—of whatever rank or assignment—who must address the specific problem the guides cover.
Revised Opioid Overdose Toolkit Now Available
  • SAMSHA released a revised Opioid Overdose Toolkit on 1/27/16. The toolkit is available here.
Rhode Island Mental Health First Aid
  • Rhode Island has modified the Mental Health First Aid program specifically for Law Enforcement.
Role of Law Enforcement Officers in Preventing Suicide (May 2013)
  • The purpose of this information sheet is to help law enforcement officers learn how to identify and respond to people they serve who are suicidal or have attempted suicide. Although the focus is not on suicide among officers, the Resources section of this sheet contains a number of items addressing that important issue.
Screening for and Treating PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Among Incarcerated Men (Wolff et al., 2013)
  • This study screened incarcerated men for PTSD and substance use disorders (SUD) and provided treatment to those who screened positive for both disorders. The study was conducted at an adult high security prison in Pennsylvania that houses approximately 4000 men. Men who screened positive for both disorders were offered evidenced-based, manualized first stage trauma interventions. This report describes the treatment study and summarizes the key findings. At the end of the study, the men who participated in the groups had improved mental health, self-esteem, resiliency and coping skills. The men reported feeling better able to manage their anger and frustration because they understood their triggers and had skills to calm their reactions to life's challenges and respond in a more measured and socially appropriate fashion.
"A Specialized Crisis Response Site as a Core Element of Police-Based Diversion Programs"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, which published this article in 2001 (Psychiatr Serv. 2001 Feb;52(2):219-22).
Specialized Police Response in Pennsylvania: Moving Toward Statewide Implementation
  • This 2016 document, prepared by the Center of Excellence, describes the current need in Pennsylvania for specialized police response training and summarizes extant promising training options that are available.
Statewide Law Enforcement/Mental Health Efforts: Strategies to support and sustain local initiatives
  • Nationwide, law enforcement agencies in rapidly increasing numbers have embraced specialized policing responses (SPR) to people with mental illnesses. These efforts, which prioritize treatment over incarceration when appropriate, are planned and implemented in partnership with community service providers and citizens. This paper describes how statewide coordination efforts are structured in Connecticut, Ohio, and Utah and synthesizes their successes and challenges in coordinating this work.
Summary of Empirical Studies on Specialized Interventions for the Mental Health Population at Intercept 1 (Law Enforcement And Emergency Services)
  • Table reproduced with permission from: Heilbrun, K. et al. (2012). Community-Based Alternatives for Justice-Involved Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Relevant Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 351-419.
Use of Force: Taking Policing to a Higher Standard
  • Police Research Executive Forum released a report on critical issues in policing on January 29, 2016. The report includes 30 guiding principals regarding use of force. Report the report here.
Using Research to Move Policing Ahead
  • To support the professional development of research-minded law enforcement officers, NIJ and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) launched the Law Enforcement Advancing Data and Science (LEADS) program in 2014. Under LEADS, NIJ awards merit-based scholarships to sworn, midrank officers who have either partnered on a research project or infused research into policy development at their agency. Read an article about the program here.

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Sequential Intercept 2: Initial Detention & Initial Court Hearings

The Brief Jail Mental Health Screen
  • The BJMHS assesses incoming detainees for the possibility of having a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression.
"A Comparison of Prebooking and Postbooking Diversion Programs for Mentally Ill Substance-Using Individuals With Justice Involvement"
  • Link to Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, which published this article in 2003 (Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice February 2003 vol. 19 no. 1 30-64 ).
Connecticut Jail Diversion Program
  • Description of Connecticut's statewide diversion program, which occurs prior to arraignment.
Crisis Care Services for Counties
  • Produced by the National Association of Counties, this publication provides a resource for the diversion of individuals with mental illness from local correctional systems.
Developing a National Model for Pretrial Risk Assessment
  • The authors discuss the development of the Public Safety Assessment-Court (PSA-Court), a tool that reliably predicts the risk a given defendant will reoffend, commit violent acts, or fail to come back to court with just nine readily available data points.
Engaging Diverted Individuals Through Voluntary Services
  • Services that seek to engage individuals and help them remain engaged in services beyond any court mandate (The EXIT Program).
Getting Inside the Black Box: Understanding How Jail Diversion Works
  • August 2010 featured article from the GAINS Center.
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses at the Pretrial Stage: Essential Elements
  • With the support of the Public Welfare Foundation, the Council of State Governments Justice Center has worked with national experts, researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, to identify Essential Elements that can guide local system responses to defendants with mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders at the pretrial stage. Read the handout here. The full document is slated for release in the Fall of 2015.
Jail Diversion & Trauma Recovery – Priority to Veterans
  • February 2011 publication by the GAINS Center detailing the numerous ways this initiative has reshaped how communities and states address the behavioral health service needs of justice-involved veterans.
Miami-Dade County Grand Jury Report- Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System: A Recipe for Disaster/A Prescription for Improvement
  • This report discusses the implications of individuals ending up in jails rather than mental health institutions, examines a pre-trail detention center and police interaction with mentally ill subjects, and provides suggestions for improvement of these areas.
Municipal Courts: An effective tool for diverting people with mental health and substance use disorders from the criminal justice system
  • This guide book provides information on the role of municipal courts as an early intervention point for diverting persons with behavioral health conditions from the criminal justice system and into treatment. Developed by SAMHSA's GAINS Center, this guide describes the benefits and challenges as well as four essential elements necessary to implement diversion programs in municipal courts: identification and screening; court-based clinicians; recovery-based engagement strategies; and proportional response. Pub id: SMA15-4929
The Nathaniel Project: An Alternative to Incarceration Program for People with Serious Mental Illness Who Have Committed Felony Offenses
  • GAINS Center report on the Nathaniel Project (NYC), including background, program specifics and results. A case example is also provided.
Non-Specialty First Appearance Court Models for Diverting Persons with Mental Illness: Alternatives to Mental Health Courts
  • GAINS Centers report on early pretrial release and deferred prosecution decision making, including a national study of these programs.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Pretrial System: A "Front Door" to Health and Safety, 2014
  • It is expected that roughly 5.9 million (one-third) of the newly insured Medicaid population in 2016 will be people who will have been booked into jails during the year. By 2022, that number is estimated to increase to approximately 7 million. Access to treatment services through the ACA at pretrial decision points creates a notable opportunity to interrupt the cycle of crime exacerbated by chronic physical and behavioral health issues. The purpose of this document is to summarize the ACA and its relevance among pretrial populations.
Practical Advice on Jail Diversion: Ten Years of Learnings on Jail Diversion from the CMHS National GAINS Center
  • Covers the full spectrum of implementing a successful diversion program, from getting started to sustainability, as well as additional resources and examples of existing diversion programs.
Pretrial Diversion in the 21st Century, 2009
  • This monograph highlights findings from a national survey of pretrial diversion programs conducted by the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA). The survey is intended to increase knowledge about diversion programs, create a comprehensive national directory of these programs, and promote networking, cooperation and sharing of technical expertise.
Pretrial Justice Institute: State of Science on Pretrial Risk Assessment
  • This document attempts to demystifies much of the misunderstandings involved in the development and application of pretrial risk assessment tools.
Pretrial Justice System Assessment: Survey Version
  • This document helps jurisdictions to assess the status of their pretrial justice practices. It is a companion document to the Pretrial Justice System Assessment, and can be administered as a survey or used as an abbreviated, stand-alone assessment tool. The survey includes critical areas of interest in the administration of pretrial justice, and can be used to determine the degree to which jurisdictional practices are consistent with national standards. It provides illustrative examples intended to give the respondent an idea of what might be happening in jurisdictions at particular stages of implementation.
Pretrial Risk Assessment
  • This 2015 issue brief from the Pretrial Justice Institute gives an overview of pretrial risk assessment, common factors of risk assessment tools and answers some common questions about assessment tools.
Report by the Task Force for Criminal Justice Collaboration on Mental Health Issues to the Judicial Council of California
  • Presents a list of 137 recommendations to improve how courts handle the seriously mentally ill, a population that makes up 23 percent of the state's prison inmates.
Resources for Courts Professionals to Enroll Justice-Involved Individuals in Health Insurance Coverage (2013)
  • Historically, the widespread lack of health insurance coverage among the population involved with the criminal justice system has limited the ability of state and local criminal justice professionals to divert individuals to appropriate behavioral health treatments or to ensure that adequate health care services are made available upon an individual’s return to the community. But starting on October 1, 2013, the implementation of health care reforms will create an unprecedented opportunity to reduce the number of uninsured Americans and enroll many of these individuals in health care coverage.
  • The Justice & Health Collaborative—a joint project of the Center for Health and Justice at TASC (Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities), the Legal Action Center, and Advocates for Human Potential—has released this document outlining steps to maximize enrollment.
Risk Assessment: Evidence-based Pretrial Risk Assessment
  • A very short overview of pretrial risk assessment, an overview of how the assessment tools were developed and how they should be used.
The Role of Screening and Assessment in Jail Reentry
  • Authors Gary Christensen, Jesse Jannetta and Janeen Buck Willison (2012) present the two-stage screening and assessment process to determine risk and need levels that are a core element of the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) model.
Screening and Assessment of Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System
  • Describes current screening methods in terms of evidence of effectiveness, time required, cost and contact information. Screening methods cover various mental health issues as well as co-occurring disorders or substance abuse disorders.
Standards on Pre-Trial Release, Third Edition (2004)
  • The overall thrust of these Standards is toward limited and focused use of secure detention, with the great majority of arrested persons released pending resolution of their cases. In order to make such a system work, jurisdictions will have to reallocate resources—away from expansion and operation of jail facilities and toward substantially expanded use of mental health services, drug treatment services, and community supervision of released defendants.
Summary of Empirical Studies on Specialized Interventions for the Mental Health Population at Intercept 2 (Postarrest: Initial Detention Or Initial Hearing)
  • Table reproduced with permission from: Heilbrun, K. et al. (2012). Community-Based Alternatives for Justice-Involved Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Relevant Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 351-419.
Team MISA (Lehigh County, PA)
  • Section of the Lehigh County Housing Reinvestment Plan describing Team MISA, which targets pre-sentencing (see Priority Population #3, pg. 9).
Use of Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing
  • This report is one in a series describing the experiences of individual jurisdictions using RNA information to inform sentencing decisions. The profile reports provided in the report offer a current picture of how some stakeholders are incorporating information into their sentencing practices
Using Management Information Systems to Locate People with Serious Mental Illness and Co-Occuring Substance Use Disorders in the Criminal Justice System for Diversion
  • GAINS Center report on the enhanced identification and referral process for Maricopa County (AZ) that occurs at post-booking. Development, process, outcomes and future projects are outlined.
Using A Proxy Score to Pre-screen Offenders for Risk to Reoffend
  • This document includes information on the Proxy, its predicative capabilities and scoring (Bogue, Woodward, and Joplin 2005). The Proxy is a four item assessment tool that generates a score for risk of reoffending.
The Veteran's Justice Outreach Initiative
  • An overview presentation of the Veteran's Justice Outreach (VJO) Initiative given by Julie Bergstresser .
Veteran's Justice Outreach (VJO) specialists in PA
  • A listing of VJO specialists for specific Pennsylvania counties.
Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI) Manual
  • The Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI) was developed by the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services in 2003 for use by Pretrial Services programs throughout the Commonwealth. The VPRAI is an objective research-based instrument that assists Pretrial Services Officers in the performance of their duties by identifying a defendant’s level of risk of failure (failure to appear and/or new arrest) if released pending trial. This document is the manual for this instrument.

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Sequential Intercept 3: Jail and Court

2013 Evaluation of Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Therapeutic Community
  • The Pennsylvania Department of Corrections offers therapeutic community drug treatment programs to inmates, and the overall goal is to reduce offenders’ risk of drug relapse and recidivism once they return to the community. After assessing the available evidence, the CrimeSolutions.gov team rated the program as having “No Effects” on participant rearrests or drug relapse.
Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery
  • The report outlines the principles and practices of the corrections and behavioral health systems and a structure for state and local agencies to begin building truly collaborative responses. It dispels myths about the link between mental illness and violence, underscores that recovery and rehabilitation are possible, and calls for the reallocation of resources where they will be most efficient and effective. Click here for a summary of the report.
Alternative Adjudicating: Mental Health Courts
  • Problem-solving courts operate with the intent of serving justice and safety through court-supervised treatment and management of individuals who break the law and do so out of personal, psychological, social, and other problems they experience. This chapter on Mental Health Courts explains the history, philosophy and goals, processes and rationale of this particular problem-solving court and evaluates the state of current and future research in this area.”
An Annotated Overview of Articles and Resources Related to Mental Health Courts
  • An annotated overview of articles and resources related to mental health court compiled in November, 2011.
"An Evaluation of the Fiscal Impact of Allegheny County Mental Health Court"
  • RAND report on the results of a study of the Allegheny County MHC, including a summary of the findings as well as the full report.
Criminal Justice Interventions for Offenders with Mental Illness: Evaluation of Mental Health Courts in Bronx and Brooklyn, New York
  • Rossman et al. (2012). This report is an evaluation of mental health courts in Bronx and Brooklyn, New York. The evaluation’s impact analysis showed that mental health court participants were significantly less likely to recidivate compared to similar offenders with mental illness who were processed under traditional court procedures. In addition, the people who reoffended were more likely to commit drug crimes than violent or property crimes. The extent of the impact differed across the two programs.
Crisis Care Services for Counties
  • Produced by the National Association of Counties, this publication provides a resource for the diversion of individuals with mental illness from local correctional systems.
Colorado Mental Health Training for Law Enforcement
  • This training is intended to help officers develop an understanding of mental health symptoms and skills to identify and provide the most safe, effective, and compassionate response possible.
Consumer Rights Come to Jail: How the Affordable Care Act Changes the Rights of Individuals Pending Disposition
  • In this issue brief, Daniel J. Mistak, J.D., General Counsel at the Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, discusses how the ACA has expanded affordability of, and access to, health care and granted rights and responsibilities specifically to individuals in jail pending disposition (May, 2015)
Correction Population in the United States, 2014
  • In December, 2015 BJS released a report regarding the U.S. Correctional Population. Read the report here.
Development of a Performance-Based RFP for Correctional Health Care Services in Vermont
  • In this issue paper, Ben Watts, M.B.A., Research Associate, Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, presents a case study which describes the policy environment that prompted the Vermont DOC’s health care system, in partnership with community-based organizations, to develop the first statewide performance-based Request for Proposals (RFP) and subsequent contract for correctional health care services in alignment with federal and state health care reforms. It also describes how this massive paradigm shift was achieved, as well as lessons learned that may be helpful to other jurisdictions interested in pursuing a similar contract model for their correctional health service programs. This may be a useful model for other states. (March 2015).
Drug Court Judicial Benchbook
  • This benchbook presents information for new judges considering starting a drug court, as well as for veteran judges looking to retool or tune-up their operations. Within these pages rests the collective knowledge and wisdom of thousands of judges, attorneys, treatment providers, probation officers, law enforcement officers, and research scholars. Following their recommendations will improve your drug court outcomes, increase cost savings, and provide smoother sailing for your court.
Ethical Issues for Prosecutors in Collaborative Courts
  • Gains Center report (March, 2015)
Evidence-based Adult Corrections Program – What works and What Does Not
  • Washington State Institute for Public Policy study provides a comprehensive review of evidence-based programs for adult offenders. Click here to read the document.
Examples of Mental Health Court Learning Sites
Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders
  • This National Institute of Corrections document provides guidance for those individuals "seeking to more effectively respond to the behavior and circumstances of the female offender." An executive summary and the following four chapters comprise this manual: characteristics of women in the criminal justice system -- a descriptive summary; women offenders and criminal justice practice; the context of women's lives -- a multidisciplinary review of research and theory; and a new vision -- guiding principles for a gender-responsive criminal justice system. An appendix provides information regarding legal considerations with regard to women offenders
Getting Inside the Black Box: Understanding How Jail Diversion Works
  • August 2010 featured article from the GAINS Center.
The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences (2014)
  • Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. prison population is largely drawn from the most disadvantaged part of the nation's population: mostly men under age 40, disproportionately minority, and poorly educated. Prisoners often carry additional deficits of drug and alcohol addictions, mental and physical illnesses, and lack of work preparation or experience. The growth of incarceration in the United States during four decades has prompted numerous critiques and a growing body of scientific knowledge about what prompted the rise and what its consequences have been for the people imprisoned, their families and communities, and for U.S. society.
A Guide to Collecting Mental Health Court Outcome Data
  • Developed by BJA, this 28-page document provides a solid overview of the types of data to collect in order to evaluation outcomes from a mental health court as well as information about how to obtain and evaluate the data.
A Guide to Mental Health Court Design and Implementation
  • Developed by BJA, this 114-page document provides a solid overview of the mental health court concept as well as considerations important in starting a mental health court and resources (such as sample referral forms and sample contracts for participation).
A Guide to the Role of Crime Victims in mental Health Courts
  • Details how the nontraditional operations of mental health courts contribute to limited victims' rights policies. The guide outlines how standard rights adhered to in these proceedings can be adapted for mental health court operations.
Handbook for Facilitators on Developing a Mental Health Court (2015)
  • The CSG Justice Center’s Handbook for Facilitators is a companion resource to Developing a Mental Health Court: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum, which is a free online multimedia training that features a flexible series of engaging and comprehensive presentations and activities for people or groups interested in starting, improving, or learning more about mental health courts.
Health and Incarceration: A Workshop Summary (2013)
  • Health and Incarceration is the summary of a workshop jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences(NAS) Committee on Law and Justice and the Institute of Medicine(IOM) Board on Health and Select Populations. Academics, practitioners, state officials, and nongovernmental organization representatives from the fields of healthcare, prisoner advocacy, and corrections reviewed what is known about these health issues and what appear to be the best opportunities to improve healthcare for those who are now or will be incarcerated. Health and Incarceration reviews what is known about the health of incarcerated individuals, the healthcare they receive, and effects of incarceration on public health. This report identifies opportunities to improve healthcare for these populations and provides a platform for visions of how the world of incarceration health can be a better place.
"How to collect and analyze data: A Manual for Sheriffs and Jail Administrators"
  • This U.S. Department of Justice National Institute of Corrections report provides step-by-step instructions for local corrections personnel who want to use statistical data to improve their organization’s efficiency and provide support for funding initiatives. It advises readers on what types of data they should regularly collect, the sources from which data can be obtained, how to store data and access it, and methods for interpreting it.
Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness
  • A detailed 2003 report from Human Rights Watch on the problems with housing the mentally ill in prisons.
Illinois Launches Center of Excellence for Behavioral Health and Justice
  • Announcement about new CoE.
Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illnesses Involved with New York City’s Criminal Court and Correction Systems (Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2012)
  • This report presents the results of an unprecedented analysis of the mental health needs, criminogenic risk, and risk of failure to appear in court for individuals admitted to the New York City Department of Correction. The report’s findings are based on tens of thousands of records from city, state, and nonprofit agencies and show important differences in outcomes for those with mental illnesses entering the New York City jail system. The report also identifies a set of policy recommendations and strategies to determine the levels of risks and needs for individuals entering the jail system; to provide appropriate pretrial, plea, and sentencing options; and to establish centralized resource hubs for coordinating assessment information and community-based supervision and treatment options. As a result of this initiative, Mayor Bloomberg announced that New York City will create “Court-based Intervention and Resource Teams” (CIRTs) to serve over 3,000 clients with mental health needs annually.
"Improving Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System"
  • Report that looks at court processes and outcomes for a small cohort of diverted youth at Alameda County Juvenile Collaborative Court, a juvenile mental health court near Oakland, California.
Improving Responses to People with Mental Illness- Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court
  • Outlines 10 elements essential to mental health court design and implementation and provides background on why each element is important and how courts can adhere to it.
Indiana NAMI Correctional Officer Training
  • 10 hour mental health training developed by the Indiana chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI-Indiana).
Inmate Mental Health Care (2011)
  • This report presents the results of 2010 survey of all 50 states’ correctional systems by the American Correctional Association. The survey covered prevalence of mental illness in state correctional systems, staffing, treatment, medication and re-entry services provided to mentally ill inmates.
In Our Own Backyard: Confronting Growth and Disparities in American Jails
  • This December, 2015 report from the Vera Institute accompanies their new interactive tool (see our website under web resources, intercept 3 for the tool) and both aim to inform the public debate on mass incarceration by focusing on its front door and providing easily accessible information on jail populations in every U.S. county, including growth from 1970 to 2014, and racial and gender disparities in incarceration rates. Read the report here.
Jail Diversion & Trauma Recovery – Priority to Veterans
  • February 2011 publication by the GAINS Center detailing the numerous ways this initiative has reshaped how communities and states address the behavioral health service needs of justice-involved veterans.
The Jericho Project: Overcoming jail diversion barriers for persons with serious mental illness & serious criminal justice involvement
  • Powerpoint presentation covering the Jericho Project (TN), including program background and overview, as well as information on results and system impact.
Judges Guide to Mental Illness in the Courtroom
  • The Judges’ Guide to Mental Illnesses in the Courtroom is a two-page bench card to help judges recognize the signs of possible mental illnesses among individuals in the courtroom and to respond sensitively and productively. Click here to read this CSG document
A Judges' Primer on mental Illness, Addictive Disorders, Co-occurring Disorders, and Integrated Treatment
  • A one-page reference, written for judges, on mental illness, addictive disorders, co-occurring disorders, and integrated treatment.
"Justice Reinvestment at the Local Level - Planning and Implementation Guide"
  • This guidebook aims to help jurisdictions create more efficient systems that manage and allocate scarce resources cost-effectively, generating savings that can be reinvested in more prevention-oriented strategies; describes the steps involved in the justice reinvestment process, the challenges that may be encountered, and examples of how those challenges can be overcome.
Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania
  • In October, 2015, Governor Wolf and Secretary Wetzel requested support from the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) and The Pew Charitable Trusts (Pew) to employ a justice reinvestment approach to build on prior successes. This request was approved and The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center has joined the effort to provide intensive technical assistance to help collect and analyze data and develop appropriate policy options for the state that are designed both to increase public safety and reduce corrections spending. This overview highlights some recent criminal justice trends in Pennsylvania that the working group and CSG Justice Center staff will explore in greater depth in the coming months.
Looking Beneath the Surface: The Nature of Incarcerated Women’s Experiences of Interpersonal Violence, Treatment Needs, and Mental Health (Lynch, Fritch & Heath, 2012)
  • Lynch, S. M., Fritch, A., & Heath, N. M. (2012). Looking Beneath the Surface The Nature of Incarcerated Women’s Experiences of Interpersonal Violence, Treatment Needs, and Mental Health. Feminist Criminology, 7(4), 381-400.
    Female offenders report higher rates of interpersonal violence (IPV) and mental health problems than incarcerated men. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of incarcerated women’s (N = 102) IPV experiences, to investigate characteristics of IPV as predictors of current mental health, and to explore women’s perceptions of their treatment needs. Utilizing multivariate multiple regression analyses, the authors found that recent partner violence, multiple types of IPV, chronic IPV, and distress at the time of the IPV were all significant predictors of current mental health. In narrative responses, participants recognized the connection between IPV and their mental health and indicated a need for trauma-informed interventions.
Maine NAMI CIT
  • NAMI Maine developed a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training program to educate law enforcement and local jail correctional officer teams to successfully identify mental health-based problems and intervene in psychiatric emergencies.
Managing Prison Health Care Spending (Pew Trusts, 2013)
  • This report examines state spending on inmate health care and the factors driving costs higher. It also reviews strategies that some states have used to control these expenses while protecting public safety and maintaining or improving the quality of care that prisoners receive. Report includes spending analysis for Pennsylvania.
Medicaid Coverage for Jail Inmate’s Inpatient Hospitalizations
  • In this article, Steven Rosenberg of Community Oriented Correctional Health Services offers some policy considerations that Sheriff department’s and local government might find useful if considering the jail inpatient hospitalization option (April, 2015)
Medicaid Expansion and Inmates: Three Jails Solve the Problem
  • Jails around the country are now proactively supporting inmate access to health services covered by Medicaid and enrollment in their state’s health insurance exchange. This National Institute of Corrections reports that jails can see significant financial benefits by taking advantage of these opportunities. Read the report here.
"Mental Health Courts: a Strategy that Works"
  • Link to Psychiatric News, 2007 article (Psychiatric News September 21, 2007 vol. 42 no. 18 6-22).
Mental Health Courts Effectiveness in Reducing Recidivism and Improving Clinical Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis
  • Mental health courts have recently emerged with goals to reduce recidivism and improve clinical outcomes for people with serious mental illness in the criminal justice system. The article is a review of mental health court literature assessing their effectiveness in reducing recidivism and improving clinical outcomes for participants using meta-analytic techniques
"Mental Health Courts have the potential to save taxpayers money, RAND study for CSG Justice Center finds"
  • RAND news release Summarizing the goals and findings of the RAND report, "An Evaluation of the Fiscal Impact of Allegheny County Mental Health Court" (above).
Mental Health Court Culture- Leaving Your Hat at the Door
  • Published by the National Center for State Courts, this resource introduces a model approach to the communication among members of a mental health court team.
Mental Health Courts: A Guide to Research-informed Policy and Practice
  • Developed collaboratively by the MacArthur Foundation and the Council of State Governments (2009), this document provides information about mental health court design and function, mental health court outcomes, future research questions and implications for policy and practice.
Mental Health Courts: A Primer for Policymakers and Practitioners
  • BJA/Justice Center report.
Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates
  • A Bureau of Justice Statistics report summarizing the mental health issues seen in inmates.
Mental Health Screens for Corrections
  • This 2007 NIJ Research to Practice report focuses on two, short mental health screens that accurately identify inmates who require mental health interventions. The screening tools are the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS) and the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS). The tools are included in the appendixes of the report.
Michigan Mental Health Courts: 2012 Annual Report and Evaluation Summary
  • This evaluation, authored by the Michigan Supreme Court, State Court Administrative Office found a variety of positive outcomes from mental health court participation. MH court participants had lower recidivism compared to a group of similar offender who did not go through MH court. Participants also experienced improvements in education, employment, mental health and quality of life outcomes.
Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons- 2000-2013
  • For the third consecutive year, the number of inmates who died while in the custody of local jails or state prisons increased. This August 2015 report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics provide statistical tables reflecting this issue.
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ)- Mentally Ill Youths and the Juvenile Justice System- A Primer on mental Health Disorders
  • This article addresses the issue of juveniles with mental illness who have become involved with the criminal justice system. It describes several common mental health disorders found in youth.
The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety
  • This CSG Justice Center report details strategies for developing cost-effective corrections policies that can reduce crime and recidivism and provides recommendations that can help coordinators of criminal justice/mental health collaborations focus resources most effectively and ensure programs are of the highest quality.
A National Survey of Self-Injurious Behavior in American Prisons
  • Pychiatric Services study based on solicitation of responses from mental health directors in all 51 state and federal prison systems to a 30-item questionnaire regarding episodes of inmate self-injury.
New Freedom Commissions on Mental Health: Subcommittee on Criminal Justice
  • Report outlining the need for mental health services in correctional institutions, as well as providing information on creating effective diversion programs (with examples) and ensuring that correctional mental health systems meet Constitutional standards.
OJP Fact Sheet on Drug Courts
  • This fact sheet examines adult and juvenile drug court program models and OJP's support of adult and juvenile drug courts. It also provides facts, research findings, and additional resources regarding drug courts
Oklahoma Department of Corrections CCRT Program
  • CCRT (Correctional Crisis Resolution Training) is a program designed to improve the outcomes of Correctional Officer and Probation and Parole Officer interactions with people in crisis who also have a mental illness. It is collaboration between the Oklahoma Department of Corrections (DOC), Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (ODMHSAS), Oklahoma City Police Department, Midwest City Police Department, NAMI-Oklahoma, consumers and their families, and community mental health providers.
Out and down: incarceration and psychiatric disorders
  • Schnittker et al. (2012), published in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. This large study found that (1) some of the most common disorders found among former inmates emerge in childhood and adolescence and therefore predate incarceration; (2) the relationships between incarceration and disorders are smaller for current disorders than lifetime disorders, suggesting that the relationship between incarceration and disorders dissipates over time; and (3) early substance disorders anticipate later incarceration and other psychiatric disorders simultaneously, indicating selection. Results also reveal that incarceration is related to subsequent mood disorders, related to feeling "down," including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. These disorders, in turn, are strongly related to disability, more strongly than substance abuse disorders and impulse control disorders. Although often neglected as a health consequence of incarceration, mood disorders might explain some of the additional disability former inmates experience following release.
PennLive Series: From Patients to Prisoners (July 2015)
The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration
  • Jails—locally run facilities used primarily to detain persons arrested but not yet convicted of any crime—now hold more than 730,000 people on any given day, more than triple their population in 1983. The U.S. Department of Justice estimated that local communities spent $22.2 billion on jails in 2011. As policymakers focus on justice reform at the local level, they need to understand how much the community is actually spending. To this end, researchers at the Vera Institute of Justice developed a survey to help counties tally the actual price of their jails. Read the report here.
Prisoner's Rights to Mental Health and Medical Care
  • A fact sheet from the ACLU.
Problem-Solving Justice Toolkit
  • Interactive resource providing guidance on the planning and implementation of problem-solving courts.
Psychiatric Disorder, Comorbidity, and Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Justice Youth
  • Researchers from the Center for the Promotion of Mental Health in Juvenile Justice at Columbia University looked at 10,000 juveniles in more than 50 jurisdictions and found that mental illness and substance abuse increase in prevalence as youth are processed more deeply into the juvenile justice system.
Psychiatric Medication Adherence Among People Who Are Incarcerated: What Do We Know? (2010)
  • According to a 2010 literature review, three factors—prisoner characteristics, medication factors, and environmental issues present in the prison system—influence psychiatric medication adherence among people in correctional facilities.
  • To download a copy of the report, click here.
Psychiatric Services- Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among Jail Inmates
  • A study that documents the high percentage of people with mental illness in jails as compared to the general population.
Psychiatric Services- Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among Jail Inmates, Frequently Asked Questions
  • Frequently asked questions about the study documenting the high percentage of people with mental illness in jail.
"Rediversion in Two Postbooking Jail Diversion Programs in Florida"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, July 2005 article (Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Jul;56(7):835-9).
Report by the Task Force for Criminal Justice Collaboration on Mental Health Issues to the Judicial Council of California
  • Presents a list of 137 recommendations to improve how courts handle the seriously mentally ill, a population that makes up 23 percent of the state's prison inmates.
Resources for Corrections Professionals to Enroll Justice-Involved Individuals in Health Insurance Coverage (2013)
  • Historically, the widespread lack of health insurance coverage among the population involved with the criminal justice system has limited the ability of state and local criminal justice professionals to divert individuals to appropriate behavioral health treatments or to ensure that adequate health care services are made available upon an individual’s return to the community. But starting on October 1, 2013, the implementation of health care reforms will create an unprecedented opportunity to reduce the number of uninsured Americans and enroll many of these individuals in health care coverage.

    The Justice & Health Collaborative—a joint project of the Center for Health and Justice at TASC (Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities), the Legal Action Center, and Advocates for Human Potential—has released this document outlining steps to maximize enrollment.

Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System (July, 2015)
  • This Congressional Research Report provides information on the use of risk and needs assessment in the criminal justice system. It starts with an overview of risk and needs assessment and a discussion of some of the critiques of it. The report concludes with a discussion of the issues policymakers might consider if they debate legislation to expand the use of risk and needs assessment in the federal prison system.
Six Steps to Improve Your Drug Court Outcomes for Adults with Co-Occurring Disorders (National Drug Court Institute and GAINS Center, 2013)
  • The National Drug Court Institute and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA’s) GAINS Center believe that every adult drug court can achieve positive outcomes for persons with co-occurring disorders—if the court is committed to doing so. With some creativity and thoughtful planning, most persons with co-occurring disorders can successfully participate in drug courts. This fact sheet provides guidance for practitioners for improving the effectiveness of drug courts for persons with co-occurring disorders.
A Sober Assessment Of Drug Court
  • Article in Federal Sentencing Reporter, October 2003. Documents key research supporting the expansion of the drug court model to reach more serious offenders in reentry courts.
Solitary Con?nement and Risk of Self-Harm Among Jail Inmates (Kaba et al., 2014)
  • Inmates who experience solitary confinement are nearly seven times more likely to try to hurt themselves than those who are never sent to solitary, according to a this study published by the American Journal of Public Health. Solitary confinement was related to self-harm even when serious mental illness was controlled.
Summary of Empirical Studies on Specialized Interventions for the Mental Health Population at Intercept 3 (Post–Initial Hearings: Jail Or Prison, Courts, Forensic Evaluations, And Commitments)
  • Table reproduced with permission from: Heilbrun, K. et al. (2012). Community-Based Alternatives for Justice-Involved Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Relevant Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 351-419.
Targeting Criminal Recidivism in Justice-Involved People with Mental Illness: Structured Clinical Approaches
  • GAINS Center article
Texas Correctional Office on Offenders with Medical or Mental Impairments
  • General website of the Texas Correctional Office on Offenders with Medical or Mental Impairments, including the mission statement and links to a description of the committee, legislative directives and community programs.
Texas Task Force on Indigent Defense- Representing the Mentally Ill Offender
  • The Task Force on Indigent Defense (Task Force) conducted a two year evaluation of the two most common models through which specialized attorneys advocate for mentally ill defendants in Texas: mental health public defenders (MHPDs) and mental health courts (MH courts). This document describes the study objectives, methods, and findings, and draws conclusions about emerging roles for the defense community in improving legal and therapeutic outcomes for people with mental illness.
Training Correctional Staff to Manage Special Populations in Jails and Prisons
  • This article outlines the process and effective strategies of training staff members in the correctional setting in the proper care and supervision of inmates with special needs. Drapkin highlights five phases of training and specific components to each phase.
Transforming Florida's Mental Health System
  • Mental Health Subcommittee of the Supreme Court of Florida. Includes detailed planning, leadership, financing, and service development recommendations to improve Florida's public mental health system and prevent unnecessary justice system involvement.
Transforming Prisons, Restoring Lives: Final Recommendations of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections
  • The Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections has released (1/26/16) its final report, Transforming Prisons, Restoring Lives: Final Recommendations of the Charles Colson Task Force on Federal Corrections. This report reflects over a year of fact finding, data analysis, and stakeholder engagement on the part of Task Force members and staff. The results are a suite of recommendations that are bold, comprehensive, data-driven, and grounded in the research evidence. The report is available here.
Treatment of Co-Occurring Disorders in County Jails: The Beaver County, Pa Experience
  • Background and overview of the Beaver County MISA Project, focused on treating consumers with co-occurring disorders in county jails.
Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey (2014)
  • This report, by the National Sheriffs’ Association and the Treatment Advocacy Center, is the first national survey of treatment practices in each state for incarcerated individuals with mental illness. It focuses on the problem of treating seriously mentally ill inmates who refuse treatment, usually because they lack awareness of their own illness and do not think they are sick.
"The Use of Criminal Charges and Sanctions in Mental Health Courts"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, 2002 article (Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Oct;53(10):1285-9).
Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011–12 (10/23/15)
  • This BJS report presents data on the use of restrictive housing in U.S. prisons and jails, based on inmate self-reports of time spent in disciplinary or administrative segregation or solitary confinement. The report provides prevalence rates for inmates by selected demographic characteristics, criminal justice status and history, current and past mental health status, and indicators of misconduct while in the facility. It also describes the relationship between the use of restrictive housing and facility-level characteristics, including measures of facility disorder and facility composition. Importantly, use of restrictive housing was linked to inmate mental health problems: 29% of prison inmates and 22% of jail inmates with current symptoms of serious psychological distress had spent time in restrictive housing in the past 12 months. The report is available here.
Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions
  • As states begin to implement criminal justice reforms, judges and prosecutors will likely start to use risk and needs assessment information during sentencing on a routine basis, according to a report published by the National Center for State Courts’ Center for Sentencing Initiatives. In the report, titled “Using Risk and Needs Assessment Information at Sentencing: Observations from Ten Jurisdictions,” the authors analyzed initiatives in 10 jurisdictions nationwide, including behavioral treatment programs, evidence-based supervision programs and partnerships between probation departments and courts
Using Trauma-Informed Practices to Enhance Safety and Security in Women’s Correctional Facilities
  • We now know that trauma often plays a role in the onset of women’s criminal behavior, is often linked to substance abuse and mental health challenges, and that trauma may explain some of the behaviors women offenders display while incarcerated (e.g.. rule violations, violent episodes, “failure” in treatment, “manipulation”). Read this document for a brief overview of trauma and its effects on women offenders, and specifically defines trauma-informed practices for women’s correctional facilities.
Summary of implication of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 for correction populations
  • This document summarizes the implications of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 Act for the corrections population.
Washoe County, Nevada Mental Health Court
  • BJA report providing background and fact sheeta related to the Washoe County (NV) Mental Health Court. Also provides information on the BJA Mental Health Court Learning Sites.
What Have We Learned from the Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation? Implications for Practice and Policy
  • In this large evaluation, offender-level data were obtained from 1,157 Drug Court participants and 627 comparison offenders who were carefully matched to the Drug Court participants on a range of variables that influenced outcomes. The basic findings of the study were that 1) drug court participants reducing drug use and criminal recidivism and increased psychosocial functioning more than comparisons participants; 2) that drug courts were as effective for violent and non-violent offenders in terms of substance use and more effective for violent offenders in terms of reducing criminal recidivism. Guide provides research-based best practices for drug courts. The executive summary of the evaluation findings is available here.
Women in Detention: A Guide to Gender Sensitive Monitoring
  • Penal Reform International tackles the issue of gender sensitive monitoring. Review the report here.

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Sequential Intercept 4: Reentry

2013 Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Recidivism Report
  • This 2013 report presents recidivism statistics for offenders released from the custody of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Recidivism is measured by three different methods: re-arrest, re-incarceration, and overall recidivism.
Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery
  • The report outlines the principles and practices of the corrections and behavioral health systems and a structure for state and local agencies to begin building truly collaborative responses. It dispels myths about the link between mental illness and violence, underscores that recovery and rehabilitation are possible, and calls for the reallocation of resources where they will be most efficient and effective. Click here for a summary of the report.
An Annotated Overview of Information and Resources Related to Re-entry
  • An annotated overview of articles and resources related to re-entry compiled in January, 2012.
Bazelon Center- Building Bridges- An Act to Reduce Recidivism by Improving Access to benefits for Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities upon Release from Incarceration
  • Provides a template for developing legislation targeting access to entitlement benefits for individuals re-entering the community from correctional settings.
Bazelon Center- Creating New Options- Training for Corrections Administrators and Staff on Access to Federal Benefits for People with Mental Illnesses Leaving Jail or Prison Manual
  • This manual describes the needs of individuals with mental illnesses who are incarcerated in jail and prison and explains how correctional staff can help the access the federal benefits that can enable them to make a successful transition to the community.
"Best Practices for Increasing Access to SSI/SSDI upon Exiting Criminal Justice Settings" (2013)
  • A publication from Policy Research Associates and SAMHSA's SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access, and Recovery Technical Assistance Center
A Best Practice Approach to Community Re-entry from Jails for Inmates with Co-occurring Disorders: The APIC model
  • GAINS Center report on the APIC Model, including a detailed overview of the model itself from a re-entry perspective.
Brad H. v. The City of New York
  • Amicus brief regarding Brad H. v. The City of New York, a state case which involved transinstitutionalization and the right to discharge planning for people with psychiatric disorders leaving jail.
Creating New Options- Training for Corrections Administrators and Staff on Access to Federal Benefits for People with Mental Illnesses Leaving Jail or Prison
  • A PowerPoint presentation from the Bazelon Center. It can be used as a training resource to educate correctional staff about access to federal benefits for people with mental illnesses upon release from jail or prison.
Critical Time Intervention for Reentry from Prison for Persons with Mental Illness
  • Draine & Herman (2007) Psychiatric Services.
"The Elected Official's Toolkit for Jail Reentry"
  • From the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center, this Toolkit includes an overview of jail reentry, first steps for developing a context-appropriate jail reentry initiative, essential facts and data to engage stakeholders, sample legislation, profiles of elected officials who have championed jail reentry, and a guide to additional resources.
"Facilitating Medicaid Enrollment for People with Serious Mental Illnesses Leaving Jail or Prison: Key Questions for Policymakers Committed to Improving Health and Public Safety."
  • To improve how jurisdictions identify and enroll eligible individuals with SMI in benefits programs, the Council of State Governments Justice Center has released this policy brief, which provides guidance for elected officials and corrections and mental health directors.
Finding the Key to Successful Transition from Jail to the Community
  • A 2009 report from the Bazelon Center explaining Federal Medicaid and disability program rules as they apply to transitioning from jail to the community.
Forensic Peer Specialists: An Emerging Workforce (Baron, 2011)
  • To meet the needs of either jail diversion or re-entry programming initiatives, a number of state and local authori¬ties have supported the development of a new ‘forensic peer specialist’ workforce. This workforce is comprised of individuals with a history of mental illness and/or incarceration, who have achieved a reasonable degree of stability in their own lives and are now employed by local government and nonprofit agencies to provide individualized support to others with psychiatric disabilities and criminal justice involvements.
From Prison to Home: The Dimension and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry
  • In this monograph on prisoner reentry, the authors bring up issues that can inform a broad set of discussions about one of the most pressing issues of our time—the challenge of reintegrating record numbers of individuals who leave prison and return home.
GAIN's Center: Practical Strategies for Increasing Vet's Involvement
  • A summary of strategies to involve veterans and their families in jail diversion and prison reentry activities.
GAINS Re-Entry Checklist for Inmates Identified with Mental Health Service Needs
  • Based on the APIC (Assess, Plan, Identify, Coordinate) Model, the GAINS Center developed the Re-Entry Checklist to assist jails in transition planning for individuals with mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. For a description of this checklist, click here.
  • Those wishing to adopt this tool can order copies direct from the printer, the Bajan Group, by clicking here.
Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison
  • The guidelines promote the criminal justice partnerships that are necessary to develop successful approaches for identifying individuals in need of services, determining what services those individuals need, and addressing these needs during transition from incarceration to community-based treatment and supervision.
Healthcare for Re-Entry Veterans (HCRV) Pennsylvania Re-Entry Guide
  • This handbook provides current information to assist incarcerated for housing, treatment for substance abuse, mental health, medical, employment information and more is included in this booklet. Contact information and relevant websites are included.
How People With Serious Mental Illness Seek Help After Leaving Jail (Wilson, 2013)
  • Wilson, A. B. (2013). How People With Serious Mental Illness Seek Help After Leaving Jail. Qualitative health research, 23(12), 1575-1590.
    This study from the journal Qualitative Health Research examined how people with serious mental illness defined and prioritized their service needs when released from jail and how these service priorities shaped the sequencing of help-seeking activities after their release. It concludes that reentry programs need to have the resources required to meet both the basic (e.g. housing and financial assistance) and treatment needs of people with serious mental illness leaving jail.
"The Impact of the 'Incarceration Culture' on Reentry for Adults With Mental Illness: A Training and Group Treatment Model"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, 2005 Best Practices article (Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Mar;56(3):265-7).
"Improving Corrections Policies and Practices: An Integrated Model of Corrections Founded on Evidence Based Practices"
  • National Institute of Corrections report from 2009 on the Crime & Justice Institute integrative model of corrections.
"Incarcerated Veteran Re-Entry Programs Aimed at Reducing Recidivism"
  • Veteran Journal article from 2008 on incarcerated veterans re-entry specialists, as well as other programs. Also includes links to other related resources.
Increasing Public Safety through Successful Reentry -Evidence-based and emerging practices
  • The handbook, developed by the NIC serves as a supplement to the curricula or as a stand-alone reference for institutional corrections and community supervision agency staff interested in achieving successful offender reentry as a means to public safety.
The Interceptor, Nov. 2010 Issue
  • Newsletter of the Community Advocates of Montgomery County, PA
"Interventions to Promote Successful Reentry among Drug-Abusing Parolees"
  • Article in Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 2009. This article reviews research findings on principles of effective correctional treatment and the interventions that have been shown to be effective with drug abusing parolees or that have been tested with general drug-abusing populations and show promise for use with parolees. The article concludes with a discussion of several issues that clinicians need to consider in adopting and implementing these interventions.
Jail Administrators Toolkit for Reentry
  • This Toolkit is designed to move the reentry discussion forward. The goal of the is to offer a set of guidelines and principles accompanied by examples taken from the field that will assist jail administrators in developing reentry strategies that can serve specific jail populations in your jurisdiction.
Life After Lock-up – Improving Reentry From Jail to the Community
  • In an effort to build knowledge on the topic, in 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance invested in the Jail Reentry Roundtable Initiative, a joint project of the Urban Institute, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the Montgomery County (Maryland) Department of Correction and Rehabilitation. The Jail Reentry Roundtable Initiative commissioned seven papers, convened a Jail Reentry Roundtable and two national advisory meetings, conducted a “scan of practice,” and interviewed dozens of practitioners around the country. This report aims to synthesize what we have learned through these efforts.
Lifelines- Linking to Federal Benefits for People Exiting Corrections- Blueprint for Action
  • Documents from the Bazelon Center. For individuals with mental illness, access to benefits for which they may be eligible is very important in reentry after release from jail. Federal benefits can provide resources for housing and basic living needs, access to treatment and other support services.
Maintaining Medicaid Benefits for Jail Detainees with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders
  • Utilization of a systemic approach to accessing benefits for individuals who qualify for Medical Assistance, SSI, and SSDI, including individuals who are homeless and those recently released from jail or prison.
"The Massachusetts Forensic Transition Program for Mentally Ill Offenders Re-Entering the Community"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, 1999 Article (Psychiatr Serv. 1999 Sep;50(9):1220-2).
Medicaid Claiming and Public Safety Agencies
  • Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (May 2015) provides an Issue Paper that addresses the issue of the underuse of Targeted Case Management (TCM) to help meet the needs of individuals involved in the justice sytem. The issue paper explains that a significant portion of the probation, parole and public safety agencies are now Medicaid-eligible and these agencies can take action to claim for reimbursable activities that they are already performing on a regular basis.
Mentoring formerly incarcerated adults
  • This article addresses the Ready4Work reentry initiative.
The Nathaniel Project: An Alternative to Incarceration Program for People with Serious Mental Illness Who Have Committed Felony Offenses
  • GAINS Center report on the Nathaniel Project (NYC), including background, program specifics and results. A case example is also provided.
Offender Reentry – Annotated Bibliography
  • Prepared by the NIC Information Center August 2015
Outcomes of Mandated and Nonmandated New York City Jail Diversion for Offenders With Alcohol, Drug, And Mental Disorders. (Broner et al., 2005)
  • Broner, N., Mayrl, D. W., & Landsberg, G. (2005). Outcomes of mandated and nonmandated New York City jail diversion for offenders with alcohol, drug, and mental disorders. The Prison Journal, 85(1), 18-49.
  • The authors studied 175 mentally ill, substance-using adult jail detainees assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months through a quasi-experimental comparison design. The study examines the effect of diversion, treatment, and individual characteristics on criminal justice, mental health, substance use, and life satisfaction outcomes. The intervention group included nonmandated and mandated diversion tracks. The comparison participants met diversion acceptance criteria but underwent standard criminal justice processes. Main findings included that mandated diversion clients were less likely to spend as much time in prison and more likely to spend time in the community, have been linked to residential and outpatient treatment, have received more treatment, and decrease drug use. However, those who did not perceive themselves coerced and had insight into their mental illness received more treatment regardless of diversion condition. Although mandated diversion was found effective for some outcomes, individual characteristics, treatment, and diversion in general significantly contributed.
PA DOC’s Interactive Re-entry Resource Map
  • This reentry map has been created by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections with help from local agencies, government departments, and county personnel that all participate in the statewide reentry initiative. You can search by the county to which you will be returning by clicking on the county or selecting the county from the dropdown list and zooming in.
"Partnering with Jails to Improve Reentry: A Guidebook for Community-Based Organizations"
  • This guidebook, from the Justice Policy Center in conjunction with the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Alternative Solutions, Inc., is a useful resource for community-based organizations (CBOs) to establish and maintain partnerships with their local jails.
Peer Support within Criminal Justice Settings: The Role of Forensic Peer Specialists
  • Davidson and Rowe (2008) discuss the role of forensic peer specialists in criminal justice settings and how a community might integrate these individuals into their services and supports.
A Peer Driven Mentoring Case Management Community Reentry Model
  • Article discussing Welcome Home Ministries (WHM) in San Diego - a peer driven re-entry program for women offenders that has had encouraging results regarding decreased recidivism and other positive outcomes.
Post-Release Planning
  • Position statement and recommendations by the Committee on Persons with Mental Illness Behind Bars, and the Committee on Continuity of Care and Discharge Planning of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists regarding post-release planning.
Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013
  • The report presents data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2013. It presents trends over time for the overall community supervision population and describes changes in the probation and parole populations. It provides statistics on the entries and exits from probation and parole and the mean time served.
  • To download the report in PDF format, click here.
Putting Public Safety First: 13 Parole Supervision Strategies to Enhance Reentry Outcomes
  • A monograph published by The Urban Institute that describes 13 key strategies to enhance reentry outcomes along with examples from the field.
Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview
  • 2016 U.S. Sentencing Commission report
Released Inmates with Serious Mental Illness
  • Baillargeon et al. (2010) American Journal of Community Psychology.
Report of the Re-Entry Policy Council: Charting the Safe and Successful Return of Prisoners to the Community
  • This report reflects the results of a series of meetings among 100 of the most respected workforce, health, housing, public safety, family, community, and victim experts in the country.
Reducing Parolee Recidivism through Supportive Homes: Successful Programs by State
  • Descriptions of various forensic supportive housing projects in New Jersey, New York, Illinois and Ohio.
Reentry Housing Options: The Policymakers Guide
  • The policy guide provides practical steps that lawmakers and others can take to increase public safety through better access to affordable housing for individuals released to the community. It offers an overview of several commonly accessed housing options and also examined three distinct approaches to increasing the availability of these options: improving access, increasing housing stock and revitalizing neighborhoods.
Reentry Mythbusters
  • Reentry MythBusters are a first product of the Federal Interagency Reentry Council. They are essentially fact sheets, designed to clarify existing federal policies that affect formerly incarcerated individuals and their families in areas such as public housing, access to benefits, parental rights, employer incentives, Medicaid suspension/termination, and more.
Risk Assessment Instruments Validated and Implemented in Correctional Settings in the United States
  • This guide, compiled by the Council of State Governments, 2013 (based on the work of Desmarais and Singh) summarizes important constructs in risk assessment and describes 19 risk assessment instruments successfully used in correctional settings in the United States.
Safer Communities: Reducing Recidivism and Saving Money Through Justice Reinvestment In Re-Entry Housing (Housing Alliance of Pennsylvania, 2012)
  • Several states have reduced their prison costs and their recidivism rates through housing for re-entering inmates. Bringing together corrections officials, nonprofit organizations, funders, and community members to address the issue of re-entry has led to both immediate and long-term cost savings. This report describes state models of re-entry housing that are showing promising results in saving costs and reducing recidivism. Applying lessons learned from effective models in other states, this report presents five recommendations for justice reinvestment in re-entry housing In Pennsylvania. Implementing the recommendations through justice reinvestment dollars will reduce recidivism rates thereby making communities safer while saving the state money.
Second Chance Act Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Programs: Implementation Challenges and Lessons Learned
  • Providing inmates the opportunity to engage with community service providers prior to release from prison and ensuring they receive immediate support after release are among the most effective strategies for successful reentry, according to a report co-authored by the Research Triangle Institute and the Urban Institute.
STAR Center and GAINS Center 3-Part Series on Supporting the Recovery of Justice-Involved Consumers
State of Recidivism: The Revolving Door of America's Prisons
  • Released by the Pew Center on the States it is the first-ever national survey on the rate of people returning to prison that provides state-by-state data. The report (data from 1999 and 2004) updates the last national study of recidivism rates, conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics and based on data from 1994. Pew found that the national recidivism rate remained nearly constant between the survey periods, though within many states there was a dramatic difference in recidivism rates over time.
Suicide in recently released prisoners: a systematic review (Jones & Maynard, 2013)
  • Jones, D., & Maynard, A. (2013). Suicide in recently released prisoners: a systematic review: Daniel Jones and Alan Maynard highlight the need for closer monitoring of ex-offenders and argue that multiple agencies should have a shared responsibility in assessing and supporting their complex needs. Mental Health Practice, 17(3), 20-27.
    Nine studies were included in the review, of which five provided enough data to undertake a meta-analysis. All studies showed increased levels of mortality from suicide in released prisoners. The meta-analysis showed the risk of suicide in released prisoners was 6.76 times that of the general population. The increased risk is likely to be linked to high levels of mental illness documented in prisoners, combined with the stress of the transition from prison to the community. Prison authorities must work closely with probation, social and healthcare services in the community to provide a complete service to this high-risk group.
Summary of Empirical Studies on Specialized Interventions for the Mental Health Population at Intercept 4 (Reentry From Jails, State Prisons, And Forensic Hospitalization)
  • Table reproduced with permission from: Heilbrun, K. et al. (2012). Community-Based Alternatives for Justice-Involved Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Relevant Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 351-419.
Supported Employment for Justice-Involved People with Mental Illness
  • This report from the GAINS Center (Bond, 2013) summarizes the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model, as well as research related to supported employment and suggests an adaptation for the IPS model for justice-involved people with mental illness.
Supportive Housing for Returning Prisoners: Outcomes and Impacts of the Returning Home-Ohio Pilot Project (Fontaine et al., 2012)
  • This report released by The Urban Institute Justice Policy Center details a pilot project, Returning Home-Ohio (RHO), placed 84 former prisoners with disabilities (including mental illness and substance abuse) in supportive housing. After one year participants were less likely to have been arrested or reincarcerated. Additionally members of the pilot program were much more likely to receive substance abuse and mental health services. Participation in the program resulted in an increase in costs in the short term.
Targeting Criminal Recidivism in Justice-Involved People with Mental Illness: Structured Clinical Approaches
  • GAINS Center article
Technology and Continuity of Care Report: Connecting Justice and Health
  • The passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act in 2009 spurred an unparalleled investment in the nationwide adoption of health information technology. Criminal justice and behavioral health care providers, however, have been passed over by this technological wave. The Community Oriented Correctional Health Services (COCHS) developed nine case studies as a way to provide insights from a range of jurisdictions and organizations and inform data-sharing efforts in other communities.
Time to Prison Return for Offenders with Serious Mental Illness Released From Prison A Survival Analysis (Cloyes et al., 2010)
  • Cloyes, K. G., Wong, B., Latimer, S., & Abarca, J. (2010). Time to Prison Return for Offenders With Serious Mental Illness Released From Prison A Survival Analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(2), 175-187.
    Serious mental illness (SMI) represents a major risk for repeated incarceration, yet recidivism studies often do not specifically focus on persons with SMI as compared to non-SMI offenders. The study reported here systematically identified Utah State prisoners released from 1998 to 2002 (N = 9,245) who meet criteria for SMI and compared SMI and non-SMI offenders on length of time to prison return. Findings indicate that 23% of the sample met criteria for SMI (n = 2,112). Moreover, survival analyses demonstrated a significant difference in return rates and community tenure for offenders with SMI compared to non-SMI offenders when controlling for demographics, condition of release, offense type, and condition of return (parole violation vs. new commitment). The median time for all SMI offenders to return to prison was 385 days versus 743 days for all non-SMI offenders, 358 days sooner (p < .001). Implications of these findings are discussed.
TPC Case Management Handbook – An Integrated Case Management Approach
  • As TPC implementation Initiative work has proceeded in the eight participating states, significant efforts have been made to translate the vision, goals, and principles of the model into the day-to-day work of managing individual cases in the very demanding world of operating correctional agencies and their partners. This handbook summarizes the lessons learned.
TPC Reentry Handbook – Implementing the NIC Transition from Prison to the Community Model
  • In 2001, the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) began its work on the development of a Transition from Prison to the Community (TPC) model. Since that time, NIC has worked with eight states as they have implemented the model and this handbook shares the lessons learned from that experience.
Using Administrative Data to Prioritize Jail Reentry Services: Findings from the Comprehensive Transition Planning Project
  • Vera’s Substance Use and Mental Health Program partnered with the New York City Department of Correction to design methods for identifying people in the city’s jail system who were most in need of services to prepare them for reentry into the community. The result was the creation of the Service Priority Indicator—a simple screening tool for targeting reentry services that uses administrative data held by the jail to identify people who are at greatest risk of being rearrested and returned to jail custody upon release. A Fact Sheet describing the Service Priority Indicator is also available.
The Veteran's Justice Outreach Initiative
  • An overview presentation of the Veteran's Justice Outreach (VJO) Initiative given by Julie Bergstresser .
Veteran's Justice Outreach (VJO) specialists in PA
  • A listing of VJO specialists for specific Pennsylvania counties.

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Sequential Intercept 5: Community Corrections & Community Support

American Exceptionalism in Probation Supervision
  • It is well known that the U.S. leads the world in incarceration rates. This Data Brief shows that, compared with Europe, America is similarly “exceptional” for its high rates of probation supervision. The average probation supervision rate for all fifty states is more than five times the average rate for all European countries included in the most recent Council of Europe data. Several U.S. States with the highest rates of probation supervision (e.g., Ohio, Rhode Island, Idaho, and Indiana) have rates that are eight-to-nine times the average European rate. Such stark differences exist despite the fact that many countries in Europe have overall crime rates that are quite similar to the U.S.
An Annotated Overview of Information and Resources related to Housing
  • An annotated overview of articles and resources related to housing compiled in January, 2012.
Building Effective Partnerships for High-Quality Postsecondary Education in Correctional Facilities
  • To support the implementation of new partnerships and strengthen existing ones between colleges and corrections agencies, this fact sheet by the Vera Institute of Justice shares lessons learned from the development and implementation of Vera’s Unlocking Potential: Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education national demonstration project, launched in 2012. The lessons in this fact sheet are grouped into three broad areas: developing college-corrections partnerships, ensuring quality in postsecondary education programs, and supporting education post-release.
Compendium of Housing Programs in Pennsylvania
  • Introduction to housing programs throughout Pennsylvania, as well as a list of state and national funding/load sources for housing projects for people with disabilities, including severe mental illness and justice involvement.
County-Wide Strategic Plan for Re-Entry (County of Northampton Criminal Justice Advisory Board, 2014)
  • This document is the result of dozens of stakeholders’ vision for what reentry can be in Northampton County, it is the hope for thousands of returning citizens whose lives in the community hinge on establishing a stable crime-free life. Please use this document as a map for success, and to get engaged with the implementation of the strategies outlined here.
Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender Program
  • "Washington State's Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender (DMIO) program, established by the 1999 Legislature, identifies mentally ill prisoners who pose a threat to public safety and provides them opportunities to receive mental health treatment and other services up to five years after their release from prison." (Source: The Dangerous Mentally Ill Offender Program: Four-Year Recidivism and Cost Effectiveness. (2009). Washington State Institute for Public Policy.)
Does Stable Employment Reduce Recidivism?
  • The National Criminal Justice Reference Service, NIJ has made available the following final technical report for a study in which author Nora Ellen Wikoff shows that education and employment programs in United States prisons have limited effects on the likelihood that participants maintain employment and avoid criminal justice involvement. The study findings can inform modifications to employment and transitional jobs programs to identify participants on the path to desistance who would be most responsive to these services.
  • A report from the Centre for Urban and Community Studies, research bulletin #36, July 2007.
Faces of Recovery: Supporting People in Housing
  • OMHSAS report describing Crisis Intervention/Mobile Crisis programs, namely those in Clearfield/Jefferson and Dauphin Counties (PA), among other programs. Contact information is also provided.
GAINS EBP Fact Sheet on Motivational Interviewing
  • Motivational interviewing is a client-centered, goal-oriented approach to counseling, with the objective to increase a person's intrinsic motivation for behavioral change through the exploration and resolution of ambivalence (Miller & Rollnick, 2002). The National GAINS Center has developed a fact sheet that reviews the research for adapting motivational interviewing to criminal justice settings.
Getting out with Nowhere to Go: The Case for Reentry Supportive Housing
  • This booklet contains information regarding the cycle of homelessness due to prisoner reentry into communities without the needed supports. It details statistics on the rising cost, the issue of homelessness among this population, and makes the argument that a plan needs to be put in place before an inmate's release. It also highlights innovations from new York, Chicago, Ohio and Los Angeles, and provides some promising outcomes around the country.
Healthcare for Re-Entry Veterans (HCRV) Pennsylvania Re-Entry Guide
  • This handbook provides current information to assist incarcerated for housing, treatment for substance abuse, mental health, medical, employment information and more is included in this booklet. Contact information and relevant websites are included.
Housing and the Sequential Intercept Model: A How to Guide for Planning for the Housing Needs of Individuals with Justice Involvement and Mental Illness
  • Report by Diana T. Myers and Associates, Inc. (2010) outlining the importance of housing for diverting people with justice involvement and mental illness, and providing methods and models to successfully incorporate housing plans in a variety of communities.
Illness Management and Recovery
  • A fact sheet developed by the GAINS Center on the use of this evidence-based practice for criminal justice involved populations that may be of value to the jail mental health staff and community providers.
Implementing a State-wide Supervision Staff Training Initiative – Lessons Learned in Two States
  • The Council of State Governments developed a Q&A

    After enacting justice reinvestment legislation, North Carolina and Pennsylvania embarked on extensive statewide supervision staff training aimed at improving supervision practices. This Q&A discussion with two agency administrators about their experiences launching and sustaining a large-scale supervision workforce training strategy may benefit other jurisdictions considering similar approaches. Read this Council of State Governments summary here.
Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illness under Community Corrections Supervision- A Guide to research-Informed Policy and Practice
  • This guide draws on three different literatures- research on community corrections and supervision strategies, mental health treatment strategies, and integrated supervision and treatment strategies to assist corrections and mental health professions in designing and implementing interviews that are informed by the latest evidence about what works, for whom, and under what circumstance.
"Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of Specialized Probation Initiatives"
  • Justice Center report on specialized probation initiatives, including the essential elements as well as informative references.
Into the Thick of Things: Connecting Consumers to Community Life - A Compendium of Community Inclusion Initiatives For People with Psychiatric Disabilities At Consumer-Run Programs
  • This compendium summarizes a year of study to identify the ways in which consumer-run programs serving individuals with psychiatric disabilities have developed initiatives or programs designed to help the people they serve reconnect to the everyday world around them. This study has sought to gather examples of consumer-operated programs that have focused, at least in part, on promoting community inclusion.
"Justice and Injustice - Homelessness, Crime, Victimization, and the Criminal Justice System"
  • Research Paper 207 from the Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto with the John Howard Society of Toronto, November 2006.
Medicaid-funded Paraprofessional Services for Criminal Justice Populations
  • In this issue paper, Matt Bechelli from Community Oriented Correctional Health Services discusses how improving health for populations that have experienced health disparities may require going beyond the conventional boundaries of health care to address social factors that affect health, including housing, employment, and criminal justice involvement. He suggests that the unique combination of experience and flexibility that paraprofessional health workers possess makes them ideally suited to serve justice-involved populations. This report describes how paraprofessional health workers can help justice-involved populations and discusses opportunities to fund paraprofessional services for the justice-involved through Medicaid. (November, 2014)
"A Model Program for the Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in the Community" (Roskes et al., 1999)
  • Roskes, E., Feldman, R., Arrington, S., & Leisher, M. (1999). A model program for the treatment of mentally ill offenders in the community. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(5), 461-472.
    There is a new and growing interest among community mental health providers and administrators in the area of correctional psychiatry. From a column in Psychiatric Times to committees and task forces in APA and the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, increased attention is being paid to the great need for the treatment of mentally ill offenders. In this article, we will introduce the reader to the magnitude of the correctional system and to the prevalence of mental illness in the correctional population. We will then describe several model programs designed to work with mentally disordered offenders, and outline a novel collaborative approach between a CMHC and a Probation Office designed to help mentally disordered offenders succeed in community treatment. Several barriers to treatment faced by this population will be identified, including double stigma, lack of family/social support, comorbidity, adjustment problems, and boundary issues. Case vignettes designed to illustrate key points will be included.
Moving Toward Evidence-based Housing Programs for Persons with Mental Illness in Contact with the Justice System
  • This factsheet reviews seven supportive housing and special needs housing programs, particularly looking at whether criminal history did or did not predict housing success/failure. It is based "on a larger discussion paper, developed for and reviewed by an expert panel convened by the National GAINS Center and is available for distribution."
The Nathaniel Project: An Alternative to Incarceration Program for People with Serious Mental Illness Who Have Committed Felony Offenses
  • GAINS Center report on the Nathaniel Project (NYC), including background, program specifics and results. A case example is also provided.
"Overcoming Legal Impediments to Hiring Forensic Peer Specialists"
  • GAINS Center report on various legal issues involved with peer specialists, and how to work around them.
Peer specialists inspire hope for recovery
  • An article on peer specialists that highlights several individuals from Montgomery County and discusses the benefits of peer specialist programs
"Peer Support within Criminal Justice Settings: The Role of Forensic Peer Specialists"
  • GAINS Center report on forensic peer specialists, including suggestions on how to integrate services.
"Probation, Mental Health, and Mandated Treatment" (Skeem et al, 2006)
  • Skeem, J. L., Emke-Francis, P., & Louden, J. E. (2006). Probation, Mental Health, and Mandated Treatment A National Survey. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(2), 158-184.
    A large number of probationers with mental illness (PMIs) are under supervision in the United States. In this national survey, we compared the supervision approaches of a matched sample of 66 specialty mental health and 25 traditional probation agencies. The prototypic specialty agency has five key features that distinguish it from the traditional model: (a) exclusive mental health caseloads, (b) meaningfully reduced caseloads, (c) sustained officer training, (d) active integration of internal and external resources to meet PMIs’ needs, and (e) problem-solving strategies as the chief means for addressing treatment noncompliance. Probation supervisors perceived these specialty features as “very useful” and perceived specialty agencies as more effective than traditional ones for PMIs. However, the most important feature of the prototypic specialty agency may also be the most endangered: reduced caseloads. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Probation Revocations and Its Causes: State Profiles and Local Jurisdictions (Bell County, TX)
  • The Probation Revocation Project aims to explore the issue of probation revocation in the United States, particularly in the context of the growing debate about the appropriate use of incarceration in a just and effective criminal justice system. This report focuses on Bell County, Texas.
"Problem-Solving Supervision: Specialty Probation for Individuals with Mental Illnesses"
  • Article in Court Review, 2004.
"Problem-Solving Supervision: Specialty Probation for Individuals with Mental Illnesses"
  • Article in Court Review, 2004.
Profiles in Probation Revocation: Examining the Legal Profile in 21 States
  • This report compiles the results of a yearlong research project on the laws relating to probation revocation in 21 American states. By leafing through the four-page “legal profiles” presented in this volume, readers can easily see how much variation exists in statewide laws of probation and probation revocation, while zeroing in on issues of greatest interest.
Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States: Patterns from 2005 to 2010
  • 67.8% of the 404,638 state prisoners released in 2005 in 30 states were arrested within 3 years of release, and 76.6% were arrested within 5 years of release (BJA, 2014). Read the full report here.
Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results
  • This report by the National Reentry Resource Center provides state-by-state information regarding reductions in recidivism for 8 exemplar states. The report concludes that focused effort on reentry planning can result in reductions in recidivism. They also offer suggests for strategies to improve recidivism rates and methods for tracking and reporting recidivism rates. (June, 2014)
"A Revolving Door? Homeless People and the Justice System in Toronto"


Second Chance Act Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Programs: Implementation Challenges and Lessons Learned
  • This brief is one in a series from the Cross-Site Evaluation of the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) FY 2011 Second Chance Act (SCA) Adult Offender Reentry Demonstration Projects (AORDP). This report describes the implementation challenges and successes among seven grantees who implemented adult reentry programs using SCA funding.
Sensitizing Providers to the Effects of Treatment and Risk Management: Expanding the Mental Health Workforce Response to Justice-Involved Persons with Mental Illness
  • The SPECTRM program, uses a cultural competence model to help service providers better understand the needs of the population they serve and deliver services tailored to their unique needs.
A Successful Prisoner Reentry Program Expands: Lessons from the Replication of the Center for Employment Opportunities
  • This report from MDRC presents results from a fidelity assessment and implementation analysis of five Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) replication programs in New York, California, and Oklahoma. After an evaluation found that CEO was effective at reducing recidivism rates, the CEO program was selected by the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation in 2011 to be part of its Social Innovation Fund and expand and replicate the model. The report describes how the model was replicated in other locations, assesses its implementation in various contexts, and reports on findings from a qualitative study of participants’ perceptions of and experiences in the CEO program.
Summary of Empirical Studies on Specialized Interventions for the Mental Health Population at Intercept 5 (Community Corrections And Community Support)
  • Table reproduced with permission from: Heilbrun, K. et al. (2012). Community-Based Alternatives for Justice-Involved Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Review of the Relevant Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 351-419.
System Change Accomplishments of the Corporation for Supportive Housing’s Returning Home Initiative - Final Report
  • The Returning Home Initiative (RHI) aims to establish permanent supportive housing as an essential component of reintegrating formerly incarcerated persons with histories of disabilities and housing instability and break the costly cycle of incarceration, homelessness, and emergency services utilization. This final report focuses on the system change accomplishments of RHI in three cities: New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago.
Three Core Elements of Programs that Reduce Recidivism: Who, What, and How Well
  • This brief article from the Council of State Governments (July 2015) examined programs that are effective at reducing recidivism and find that these programs have three core elements in common: they target people who are most likely to reoffend (who); they use practices rooted in the latest research on what works to reduce recidivism (what), and they regularly review program quality and evaluate how closely the program adheres to its established model (how well).
Technology and Continuity of Care: Connecting Justice and Health (Nine Cases Studies)
  • Many jurisdictions are using some form of Sequential Intercept Mapping5 to convene community stakeholders to determine where services or other opportunities exist for this vulnerable population. Other jurisdictions are exploring the use of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM)6, which was developed to create intergovernmental data exchange with a focus on the justice sector. This framework has recently expanded into health exchanges. In this document, authors Ben Butler, Nan Torrey, Ben Watts, Daniel J. Mistak, and Leta Smith, representing Community Oriented Correctional Health Services, use nine case studies to illustrate how health and justice stakeholders can create data sharing systems.
"A Ten-Step Guide to Transforming Probation Departments to Reduce Recidivism"
  • Report released by The Council of State Governments.
"Toward Evidence-Based Practice for Probationers and Parolees Mandated to Mental Health Treatment"
  • Link to Psychiatric Services, 2006 Article (Psychiatr Serv. 2006 Mar;57(3):333-42).
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare for Homeless Veterans
  • Contact information for Healthcare for Homeless Veterans Coordinators nationwide.
Veteran Homelessness: A Supplemental Report to the 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress
  • This report is the result of ongoing collaboration between HUD and the VA to understand the extent and nature of homelessness among veterans in the United States.

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